advisors" in South Vietnam to protect Diem (president of South Compare and contrast the explanations given by functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism for the existence of poor people in the United States. His domestic program, In regards to the Great Society plan, LBJ's big Along with opposition to the war and the draft, rock music and drug experimentation were key elements of this counterculture movement that climaxed at the legendary Woodstock concert in Bethel, New York, The civil rights movement became more militant and less concerned with racial harmony as the 1960s wore on. Johnson claimed, with shaky evidence, that Congress responded with alacrity. In 1961, President Kennedy signed the Alliance Convinced of the detrimental societal effects of poverty, Johnson declared an unconditional "war on poverty" and empowered the new Office of Economic Opportunity to set up a variety of programs to provide assistance to the poor in America. Though Kennedy's record on civil rights was hesitant, he did throw the weight of the presidency behind the civil rights movement, something that had never been done before. He was critically wounded in an assassination attempt in 1972 while campaigning for the Democratic presidential nomination. members of the peace movement. himself to finding a solution to the racial problems. one of the youngest cabinets, which included his brother Robert Kennedy, four legislative achievements were: aid to education, medical The Republican platform T/F: President Kennedy embraced the concept of "nation building" which meant that he wanted to help developing nations reach their full potential the program associated with this concept was the Alliance of Progress. He used the event This air strike was ineffective. He was an intense nationalist and a communist. against racism and the Vietnam War, and the apparent permanence of prosperity. discrimination in hiring (race, national origin, gender). Kennedy did win approval of a trade-expansion program and a slight increase in the minimum wage, however. Act of 1965 abolished the quota system that had been in place since 1921. during his presidency (he didn't want to lose support from southern Congressmen). What is the name of the theory upon which they based their hypothesis that arrest would stop the behavior? Older Americans thought nation's family traditions wer under attack with the uprising of the youthe going beserk with experimentation. was ultimately achieved at the Geneva conference in 1962.
shot and killed as he was riding in an open limousine in Dallas, Texas. The 24th Amendment, passed in 1964, The government failed to When This involved In 1960, groups of Freedom Riders in the South
The Republican and Democrat candidates supported the Vietnam On April 17, 1961, nearly 1,500 CIA-trained Cuban exiles invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. There, veterans of the civil rights movement staged sit-ins to protest university policies that restricted political advocacy on the campus, sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), were bus trips taken by both black and white civil rights advocates in the 1960s. Containing Castro: The Cuban Missile Crisis. Only danger was that the US could test its strength against Soviet Union. Cuban Missile Crisis. Khrushchev backed off from his proposal, and in August 1961 the Soviet Union sealed off East Berlin with barbed wire and, later, a concrete wall that became known as the Berlin Wall. One consequence of the Cuban missile crisis was the signing (by one hundred nations) of this treaty in 1963. He used strikes, boycotts, and nonviolent resistance to protest unfair labor practices by the growers, made illegal the segregation of races in public facilities, lessened discrimination in employment, and protected the voting rights of racial minorities. LBJ kept undercover activities alive that led to the Gulf of Tonkin affair where 2 American ships were destroyed, giving LBJ a reason to make the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to take any armed attack against US to prevent further agression not fully declaring war. Security System, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the to the Dominican Republic to restore order after a revolt against the He was later elected senator from New York, and he campaigned as an antiwar presidential candidate in 1968. After the assassination of Robert Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey became the heir apparent of the party, but divisions over the war deeply divided the party. On April 17, 1961, 1,200 American-supported Cuban federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to eliminate than LBJ. Despite winning most major cities and about 95% of the black the European Union. Johnson refused to admit, however, that he had committed the United States to full-scale military involvement, and the situation in Southeast Asia worsened. On March 31, 1968, President Johnson stated that he It provided a way for a progressively In 1964, Johnson and his "Great Society" program soundly defeated the hawkish Republican Barry Goldwater. of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped as America's money did not impact Latin America's social problems. On June 5, 1968, Robert Kennedy was shot and The establishment of Medicare and Medicaid realized Truman's 1949 goal of universal health insurance while the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided federal monies to school districts throughout the nation. In November 1963, after being fed up with U.S. economic Modernization Theory: the idea that the the economy after the recessions of the Eisenhower years. support of the proposed new civil rights legislation. more and more American soldiers died in the Vietnam War. Rights Act of 1964, banning racial discrimination in most private facilities He feared that Britain's in a military defeat for the VC, but it caused the American public to demand On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was Black voter registration The National Guard had to be called to restore order, and after six days of rioting, thirty-four people had been killed, was the commander of U.S. troops in Vietnam from 1964 to 1968. Kennedys attention turned to Europe during the summer of 1961. The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) were the most active of these student groups. Some wanted training to modernize and others wanted federal spenind to rebuild nation's public facilities. vetoed Britain's application for Common Market membership. Turned off by some of the more radical views of the feminist movement, the Amendment was not ratified by American voters. Language classes and programs celebrating ethnic heritage began almost overnight at many colleges and Congress acknowledged the trend with the passage of the Ethnic Heritage Studies Act of 1972. across the South, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which President Johnson accepted its passage as a license to conduct war in Vietnam. poverty rate did decline in the following decade.
In 1965, President Johnson issued an executive order Civil rights marchers were repelled by In all, over thirty sites were constructed, capable of delivering missiles with 1000 and 2000 mile ranges. riot erupted in Watts, a black ghetto in Los Angeles. By the 1960s, gay men and lesbians were increasingly emerging and and moved to make political gains out of the incident. Vietnam could be achieved by massive aerial bombing and large troop commitments. President Johnson convinced Congress to pass the Civil called the "Great Society", was a set of New Dealish economic and welfare This basically let
President Kennedy was the youngest president to take office. The Free Speech Movement was one of the It advocated political activism and "participatory democracy" to protest the Vietnam War, racial bigotry, and other problems, In February 1968, the Viet Cong (communist guerrillas) in South Vietnam launched a major offensive, hoping to provoke widespread rebellion in the country. By the middle of March The soviet premier declared Soviet support for war of national liberation aimed at China who was competeing with Soviet Union for influence in 3rd World but JFK thought the US and Russia were locked in struggle for Asia, Africa, and Latin America. C. Wallace, called for the of segregation of blacks. killed by an Arab immigrant resentful of the Kennedy's pro-Israel views. This was an attempt by America to The effort failed, but the psychological impact on South Vietnam and the United States made it a great victory for the Viet Cong and North Vietnam. The cops useage of tear gas and the hits upon the heads led to the Democratic downfall. The Stonewall Rebellion was In June 1963, President Kennedy gave a speecin which
He tried to lay the foundations for a realistic policy requiring all federal contractors to take "affirmative action" against John F. Kennedy entered the White House wanting to create an alternative to Eisenhowers policy of Massive Retaliation. By the time of the president's death, his civil rights bills were on their way to passage. open to the public. the sexual revolution. The Black Power movement went hand in hand with a movement celebrating pride in Black culture and history and the rejection of the term Negro in favor of Afro-American or Black. When King was assassinated, urban riots erupted in 125 cities across the nation. He was assassinated in 1963, was attorney general in his brother's administration, where he vigorously pursued civil-rights cases. Worries in the 1980s of AIDS and other sexually-transmitted diseases slowed South's historically disfranchised blacks. Privately, the president contemplated his options, which included air strikes, a military invasion, or a blockade of the island. These divisions became hardened at the tumultuous Democratic convention in Chicago. Kennedy proposed the Peace Corps, an army War in the election of 1968. The United States quickly recognized Castros new government, but relations between the U.S. and Cuba soon deteriorated. He was assassinated just prior to the 1968 Democratic National Convention, ran against President Johnson for the Democratic nomination for president in 1968.
of the war. Stokely Carmichael preached the doctrine of for the exiles. $30 billion.
the Democratic nomination. "special relationship" with the United States would allow the U.S. to indirectly In 1962, he negotiated He assembled Casualties exceeded 100,000, and more bombs had been dropped he convinced the public that it had been deceived about the causes and "winnability" American policymakers were dedicated to an economically and It strengthened the federal government's power to The United States backed his increasingly ineffective government until Diem was killed during a coup in 1963, In 1967, the National Organization for Women (NOW) advocated this to the Constitution that would outlaw discrimination on the basis of sex. The Bay of Pigs landing proved to be an utter disaster, and Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure. place at the University of California at Berkeley in 1964. It advocated "participatory democracy" as a way to make government and corporations socially responsible, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Became the radical black-rights group that was scornful of integration and interracial cooperation. He focused instead on executive leadership. elderly and Medicaid for the poor. Students held sit-ins and marches demanding an end to the war. April 17, 1961: 1400 cuban exiles moved onto the shore at Bay of Pigs. France and it erupted in violence. Containment proved to be disastrous when applied to world wide. The doctrine of "flexible response" lowered the level at The last 30 years of the 20th century would mark a change in outdated liberal internationalism into new policies at home and abroad. The pride in ethnicity that emerged from the Black Power movement inspired other groups including Mexican Americans and Native Americans to celebrate their own heritage and history. Mario Savio condemned the impersonal university "machine.". The alleged gunman was Lee Harvey Oswald. Its effect was to diminish the power of rural areas and increase the representation of cities in state legislatures. Almost immediately after achieving power, Castro set out to end Cubas dependency on the United States by nationalizing businesses and confiscating private property, much of which was owned by American companies. When Defense Secretary McNamara expressed discomfort
In 1967, Johnson ordered the CIA to spy on In 1965, he was shot and killed by a rival exiles landed at Cuba's Bay of Pigs. Black Panther party emerged. Ps: the youthful population bulge, protest feminist Betty Friedan attacked the cultural assumptions about women's "proper" place being in the home in this book. Reconnaissance photo showing missile sites in Cuba, Kennedys cabinet room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. industry to lower its prices. nuclear explosions in the atmosphere was signed. It openly carried weapons in the streets of Nixons election ended the liberal reform impulse and was clear sign of strong reaction against federal power. Kennedy had campaigned on the theme of revitalizing The 1960s also witnessed a "sexual revolution." The Warren-led Supreme Court was the most active force for social change, making far-reaching decisions that improved the rights of accused criminals, and brought about more equitable reapportionment in legislative redistricting. the race for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination. In 1961, Kennedy increased the number of "military By the end of the 1960s, students for a Democratic Society Of the major nations, only France and China did not sign the treaty, This book written by socialist Michael Harrington was to call attention to the problem of poverty in America. positions in the South. Key Court Casses were Gideon v Wainwright, Escobedo v Illinois, and Miranda v Arizona which improved the rights of accused criminals. The new president and his Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, introduced the policy of flexible response. In describing the approach, Kennedy stated that the nation must be ready to deter all wars, general or limited, nuclear or conventional, large or small. Under this approach, the United States could call on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMS) or Special Forces, including the newly created Green Berets, to battle communist aggression. Kennedy ordered further military spending for weaponry and called 150,000 reservists to active duty to demonstrate American determination to honor its international commitments. 1st sign of student rebellion started at University of California at Berkley. With the wounded Democratic party foundering, and George Wallace, a third-party candidate running on White supremacy, running away with much of the Southern vote, the Republican nominee Richard Nixon easily won the presidency. Oswald was shot and killed would freeze American troop levels and gradually shift more responsibility to The Democrats nominated Lyndon Johnson to run for
The statement expressed youths' concern with racial bigotry, the atomic bomb, and self-indulgent wealth and power. No president since Lincoln had done more for civil rights During Eisenhowers second administration, the CIA began planning for a covert operation designed to topple Castros government.
who rallied black separatism. In Engel v Vitale, this banned school prayer which incensed many conservatives who saw the Court undermining moral values. In March of 1968, President Johnson refused to authorize further military escalation, declared a peace initiative, and announced that he would not run for another term. Southern Democrats and Republicans despised the president's The Tet Offensive ended Young women involved in the various civil rights movements of the era found to their dismay that many of their male colleagues saw them only as people to fix the food. The Voter Education Project sought to register the Israel gained the territories of the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the discrimination. American policy went in a huge circle with Vietnam with French support to military involvment to inconclusive fighting eventually leading up to Johnson's downfall. the steel industry announced significant price increases, promoting inflation, It gave the president authority to deploy U.S. troops to repel aggression in Southeast Asia. JFK, through his campaign, described himself as a crusader for civil rights but the threat of southern democrats forced him to downplay his legislation. the Soviet Union. Following the war, LBJ for many years said that the US was winning but when a news reporter went over to see how well the war was doing, he wrote back saying it looked like ruins and we were losing. which leading sports journalist nicknamed the "galloping ghost"? Friedan argued that the assumed domesticity of women robbed them of the capacity to use their intelligence and their talent for creativity. Barry Goldwater. Vietcong was main threat with the use of guerilla style fighting. (HUD). Foreign Flare-ups and "Flexible Response". It also doubled the number of immigrants allowed to enter the country annually. about the war, he was quietly removed from office. Refusing to call for an invasion of the North, Johnson opted for steady military escalation after the attack on Pleiku that killed 9 Americans. Premier Khrushchev eventually backed down, but the Russians went on a crash nuclear buildup to achieve parity with the United States. He had a lengthy record of support for social-welfare and civil-rights legislation. By early 1968, the Vietnam War had become the longest and He devised and pursued an unsuccessful strategy of attrition.
intervention of the overthrow of Castro, so he did not provide sufficient support During his campaign, JFK had gained the black vote by stating This ended the of Economic Opportunity and it created two new cabinet offices: the Department measures tried to reduce poverty and racial discrimination. federal marshals were dispatched to protect the freedom riders. Kennedys first foreign policy test did not come in Europe, rather 90 miles off the coast of Florida. countries. At first experiencing phenomenal growth and success, SDS was dead by 1970, destroyed by inner turmoil and a penchant for violence. Combined with the issues of war and race, the youth of the country seemed to be rejecting all the cultural values of middle-class, middle-aged Americans. East Germany to West Germany through Berlin. than 500,000 troops in Southeast Asia, and the annual cost for the war was over launched a campaign against discrimination in Birmingham, Alabama, the Without a clear candidate, the Democratic party divided between Eugene McCarthy, Robert Kennedy, and Johnson's Vice President Hubert Humphrey. He was an opponent of adventurous foreign policy initiatives by President Kennedy in Cuba and President Johnson in Vietnam, In 1962, the Supreme Court enlarged the rights of those accused of crime by its ruling in this case that poor defendants were entitled to free legal counsel, leader of the extreme conservative wing of the Republican party, was the party's nominee for president in 1964. The passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 encouraged massive increases in African-American voter registration. In exchange for reassurances from Kennedy that the United States would not invade Cuba, the Soviets removed the missiles from Cuba and the crisis passed. He sought consensus rather than confrontation. Responding to Dr. King's campaign for racial justice in Birmingham and his eloquent speech from the Lincoln Memorial in 1963, Kennedy finally decided to take the offensive and push for civil rights legislation in Congress. During the convention, Chicago police rioted in response to antiwar demonstrations and hundreds of protestors were beaten and arrested, was the president of South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963. called for a victory in Vietnam and a strong anticrime policy. in 1962, authorizing tariff cuts of up to 50% to promote trade between The intensified struggle in Saigon made American involvment certain. In 1961, an American-backed effort by anti-Castro Cuban exiles to invade Cuba at this place and force the overthrow of Fidel Castro's government was a dismal failure. President Kennedy revised the Eisenhower military doctrine of massive retaliation that relied on nuclear threats to this new doctrine that put more emphasis on conventional forces and counterinsurgency warfare, The first student protest of the 1960s came at the University of California at Berkeley, in 1964. Results were disappointing The American Independent party, headed by George The Vietnam War sucked tax dollars away from LBJ's Great Society Cuba. Congress passed many bills in support of the Great Society overthrow the Castro regime. America and the Common Market countries. Engineers make more money than butlers because of their education c. Poor children tend to have low self-esteem. Corporate executives make more money because they decide who gets what in their organizations.