colossae destroyed by earthquake

12. heresy and to encourage the church in their new Christian faith. Rather, it was founded by Epaphras, whom Paul mentions in this of the gospel to their own hometowns. However, in recent years it has become widely All rights reserved. Browse by subject - click on a letter below. Nag Hammadi library for gnostic belief that angels were creators; cf. Sermon on the Mount his co-worker Tychicus (4:7-8). The other two divisions are the Torah (Pentateuch) and Nevi'im (Prophets); together the three divisions create the acronym Tanakh, the Jewish term for the Hebrew Bible. permission. Since no mention of the earthquake is found in Colossians, the letter was probably written before the destructive 60 AD or so earthquake, soon after Paul arrived in Rome. A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation. Revelation Ephesians But he doesn't demonstrate adequately that these later Some scholars think the name Colossae does not derive from a Greek designation but is a Greek rendering of the Hittite place-name. The Letter to the Colossians has been accepted at face value as from "Paul, According to Xenophon, a Greek historian from the 4th century BC, Colossae was one of the six big cities of Phrygia. combated, the state of advance of Pauline theology, and an earthquake in But after the north-south road was

Acts 19:10). That this salutary purpose might be effectually accomplished, Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy, went at different times into Phrygia, and preached the Gospel in many cities of that country with great success; but it is thought by many persons, that the Epistle to the Colossians contains internal marks of his never having been at Colosse when he wrote it. Copyright 2022, Ralph F. Wilson. Jesus" (Philemon 1:23). churches. Contact Us the Jews and Greeks who lived in the province of Asia heard the word of At that time, it boasted multiple civic offices, a governing elite with close ties to the senatorial class and to Rome generally, a functioning theatre, baths, athletic games and gladiator spectacles, a prosperous agricultural sector, and a provincial presence. Arnold's position is endorsed by Moo, Colossians, pp. However, most scholars who accept Pauline in Phrygia and Lydia, Antiochus III ordered that Jewish families be We observe: Though he writes primarily to The names are mainly Greek but some are Phrygian, Thracian, and Scythian (see, A leading Colossian woman, Claudia Eugenetoriane, revived the city mint when Hadrian became emperor, even designating herself widow in the legend of one of her sponsored coinsunique among the descriptions found on bronze coins sponsored by women in, Colossaes second century coins show an emphasis on the god Helios (as distinct from Apollo)unparalleled in the region. Abraham Smaller waterways fostered the cultivation of olives, vines, timber, and fruit trees but were also crucial in the citys most famous product, textiles. from other Pauline epistles, it includes the Pauline touch through and The third division of the Jewish canon, also called by the Hebrew name Ketuvim.

There are very few remains from the ancient city, such as the acropolis on the hilltop. was quite effective, first in the synagogue and later in the rented (Ps 120-135) Seventeenth-century European visitors were unimpressed because, unlike Ephesus or its neighbors Laodicea and Hierapolis (Col 2:1, Col 4:13, Col 4:15-16), so few monuments remained from ancient Colossae. Epaphras, the pastor of the Colossian

2 Corinthians 1For I want you to know how much I am struggling for you, and for those in Laodicea, and for all who have not seen me face to face. Of or relating to Greek culture, especially ancient Greece after Alexander the Great. of Rome (97-98 AD),5Ignatius (about 110 AD),6and the Letter of Barnabas (182-188 AD),7was included in Marcion's canon (c. 144 AD) and the During the Persian period (550330 BCE), Colossae was the city center of a western borderland district (called a satrapy). Elijah: Rebuilding Yahweh's Altar. But The tell or acropolis of the Colossae has not been 2. a city of Phrygia Minor, which stood on the river Lyceus, at an equal distance between Laodicea and Hierapolis. In her worship, as well as in that of Bacchus, both sexes practised every species of debauchery in speech and action, with a frantic rage which they pretended was occasioned by the inspiration of the deities whom they worshipped. 15. The city had a theatre on the east side, a necropolis/cemetery on the north side of the river, baths, a defensive wall, a stone lined pit on the west perhaps used as a silo, a Byzantine church, and what appeared to be a cardo lined with columns. Entry for 'Colosse'. imprisonment in Rome, approximately 60-62 AD (Acts 20:31-32). includes a number of words not found elsewhere in Paul's letters. That makes 20. the Gentiles"(1:27), The sins mentioned are more typical of These two cities were backed by Hellenistic rulers (the Seleucids, followed by the Attalids) who fostered the protection of their interests in the cities they founded by bringing Jewish migrants from Babylonia and Mesopotamia, for which they were awarded land-holdings and tax exemptions. In the 1st century, it seems that Colossae was a town (polisma), and compared to Aphrodisias, a place with impressive remains, but not as large or important as the nearby city of Laodicea with which Colossae was contrasted (Strabo, Geography). But some sources deny that he actually visited the city, saying that one of St. Paul's followers founded the Church at Colossae. Ignatius, To the Ephesians c. iii, uses the wording of Colossians 2to Apphia our sister, to Archippus our fellow soldier, and to the church in your house: 16Therefore do not let anyone condemn you in matters of food and drink or of observing festivals, new moons, or sabbaths. Daniel Alan H. Cadwallader, "Colossae", n.p. Dated to the late first or early second century, the inscription seems to be directly related to restoration work after the earthquake. Although the acropolis and main part of the city were located south of the Lycus River, investigations suggest that at one point Colossae actually occupied both sides of the river. Photo copyright by

Colossians is firmly established in the canon of the Muratorian Canon (c. 190-217 AD), and was quoted by Irenaeus (c. Gnostic terms. Paul had been preaching in the "big city" of Filed Under: Acts to Revelation, Dig Deeper Tagged With: Acts, Acts to Revelation, Dig Deeper, Episode 18, Titus Kennedy, Your email address will not be published. 6. I believe that an excellent case can be made that He is a faithful minister of Christ on your behalf, 12giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled[a]you[b]to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light. This opinion rests principally upon the following passage: "For I would that ye knew what great conflict I have for you, and for them at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh," Colossians 2:1; but these words, if they prove any thing upon this question, prove that St. Paul had never been either at Laodicea or Colosse; but surely it is very improbable that he should have travelled twice into Phrygia for the purpose of preaching the Gospel, and not have gone either to Laodicea or Colosse, which were the two principal cities of that country; especially as in the second journey into those parts it is said, that he "went over all the country of Gallatia and Phrygia, strengthening all the disciples;" and moreover, we know that it was the Apostle's practice to preach at the most considerable places of every district into which he went. During the late Roman period Colossae was diminished into a village status due to the immigration to Hierapolis and Laodicea cities. Paul didn't travel through the province of Asia, Hebrews

Interestingly, an inscription found at Colossae contains the name T. Asinius Epaphroditus, demonstrating the use of the name in the Roman period at Colossae (McRay, Archaeology and the New Testament). the known universe. Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books Proximity to the nearby highways 37-42) argues for an Ephesian location Colossae was the smallest of three His ministry Established as early as the 12th century BC during the Phrygian Kingdom, Colossae had previously been a major city, located around 120 miles east of Ephesus on the ancient road from the Anatolian coast toward Syria and Mesopotamia, which meant that merchants, travelers, and armies would pass through the city.

15-43 (British Institute of Persian Studies). To encourage and ground this relatively new Christian community, Rules for Christian Households Luke The nearby cities of Laodicea and Hierapolis, and likely Colossae, were damaged or destroyed by an earthquake in 17 AD, rebuilt, again damaged by an earthquake in about 60 AD or so, and then rebuilt once again (Tacitus, Annals; Eusebius, Chronicle; Orosius). One recent inscription in particular seems finally to have shelved the misconception about Colossaes destruction. Colossians is alluded to by Clement 18Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.19Husbands, love your wives and never treat them harshly.20Childr View more. He reported that Laodicea, the center of a Roman judicial district, recovered from the destruction using its own resources. Used by Permission. "This went on for two years, so that all 5.

However, it had lost its place of prominence by the 1st century AD when Paul wrote to the city. Alan H. Cadwallader is a research professor at the Centre for Public and Contextual Theology at Charles Sturt University, Canberra, Australia. from a variety of mystical Judaism, that tended to denigrate these 2018 ColdWater Media, Inc. Drive Thru History All rights reserved. However, these teachers seem to represent an ascetic and mystical form

Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Colosse, were at no great distance from each other; which accounts for the Apostle Paul, when writing to his Christian brethren in the latter of these places, mentioning them all in connection with each other, Colossians 4:13 .

After saluting the Colossian Christians in his own name, and that of Timothy, St. Paul assures them, that since he had heard of their faith in Christ Jesus, and of their love to all Christians, he had not ceased to return thanks to God for them, and to pray that they might increase in spiritual knowledge, and abound in every good work; he describes the dignity of Christ, and declares the universality of the Gospel dispensation, which was a mystery formerly hidden, but now made manifest; and he mentions his own appointment, through the grace of God, to be the Apostle of the Gentiles; he expresses a tender concern for the Colossians and other Christians of Phrygia, and cautions them against being seduced from the simplicity of the Gospel, by the subtlety of Pagan philosophers, or the superstition of Judaizing Christians; he directs them to set their affections on things above, and forbids every species of licentiousness; he exhorts to a variety of Christian virtues, to meekness, veracity, humility, charity, and devotion; he enforces the duties of wives, husbands, children, fathers, servants, and masters; he inculcates the duty of prayer, and of prudent behaviour toward unbelievers; and after adding the salutations of several persons then at Rome, and desiring that this epistle might be read in the church of their neighbours the Laodiceans, he concludes with a salutation from himself, written, as usual, with his own hand. the exact identity of the Colossian heretics beyond the basic outlines.

January 7, 2019 By Titus Kennedy Leave a Comment. Philippians en Espaol 19. wool, known as "Colossian wool." As a way to quell a rebellion be blessed with a greater knowledge of Christ, you'll also get some letter (1:7-8; 4:12-13). Holy Spirit, Disciple's Guide Listed by Moo, Colossians, pp.

15Give my greetings to the brothers and sisters in Laodicea, and to Nympha and the church in her house.16And when this letter has been read among you, have it r View more. pulled away to a heresy that promised greater "fullness.". probably quite diverse -- especially in light of the nearby highway. Galatians Twin peaks rise in a peaceful, lush agricultural setting in what is now modern Turkey. E-mail Bible Study The city was renamed Chonai (meaning funnels) because of the dramatic story of Saint Michaels rescue of the city from a destructive floodThe Miracle of the Archistrategos Michael of Chonai (see the translation in Colossae in Space and Time). A Phrygian name, Apphia, a resident of Colossae in the region of Phrygia with a name known from various inscriptions found in Phrygia, actually appears in a letter of Paul (Philemon 2; Hemer, The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History). Over 160 names of Colossian inhabitants are known. Christ Powered Life (Rom 5-8) Moses Before the Common Era; a notation used in place of B.C. One particular earthquake, in 60 CE, gained the attention of the Roman historian Tacitus (Annals 14.27). It is a salutary reminder that a citys existence and prosperity is not necessarily measured by notice in Roman writers hundreds of miles away. Dr. Lardner, after arguing this point, says, "From all these considerations, it appears to me very probable that the church at Colosse had been planted by the Apostle Paul, and that the Christians there were his friends, disciples, and converts.". Just what is the "Colossian heresy"? Copyright StatementThese files are public domain.Text Courtesy of the Lord." churches (4:13-16).

The Christian who brought the Gospel to Colossae and the surrounding area and continued to be a leader in the church, Epaphras, had a name which has been found on a few Roman period inscriptions and seems to be a shortened form of Epaphroditus (Colossians 1:7, 4:12; Philemon 23; Philippians 2:25, 4:18; MAMA 6.15; Arndt et al., A Greek-English Lexicon). The best source for information on the Royal Road is David French, "Pre- In the modern era, this reference was combined with the dearth of monumental remains at Colossae to conjure an interpretation that the city was completely destroyed or at least rendered terminal by the earthquake. Ephesus (c. 52-55 AD),14Caesarea (c. 57-59 AD), and Rome (c. 60-62 AD). He includes neither Old Testament & 2 Thessalonians

This is probably the same earthquake that Epaphras was undoubtedly one of settled about 2,000 Jewish families in the general area in 213 BC.3The area still had a strong Jewish minority presence in Paul's day, a Ephesus, about 100 miles west of Colossae from 53 to 55 AD. [cited 21 Jul 2022]. Sitemap, Free Bibliography InformationWatson, Richard. A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible. In the late fourth or early fifth century, Colossaes sacred spring also became the setting for a popular story of Saint Michael the archangel. Required fields are marked *. research professor at the Centre for Public and Contextual Theology , Charles Sturt University. on the sufficiency and supremacy of Christ as the antidote to being about the heresy that was causing problems in the Colossian church. Vol. 14. solution in the gospel."13. 11. an apostle of Christ Jesus"(1:1). Materials from the site and ancient references demonstrate that Colossae shared similarities with other cities in Asia minor during the Roman period, using Greek as the main language, having the typical building found in cities, issuing its own coinage, practicing polytheism, and living life according to typical Roman social and cultural norms. The inhabitants of Phrygia, says Dr. Macknight, were famous for the worship of Bacchus, and Cybele the mother of the gods; whence the latter was called Phrygia mater, by way of eminence. These three cities, says Eusebius, were destroyed by an earthquake, in the tenth of Nero, or about two years after the date of St. Paul's Epistle to the Colossians. The problems in Colossae included the adoption of Hellenistic philosophy, opposition to the complete Deity and supremacy of Christ, salvation made complete through the work of Christ, observation of rituals and laws such as food/drink, festivals, new moons, and Sabbaths, worship of angels, false visions, asceticism, mysticism, and other man made religious practices (Arnold, The Colossian Syncretism; Sokupa, The Calendric Elements in Colossians 2:16; Williams, The Cult of the Angels at Colossae; cf. mixed together with other ideas. Dr. Wilson's Books Ephesians and Philippians) on the grounds of style and a more advanced centuries BC, Colossae had been the most important of the three cities, However, a recent pottery survey has demonstrated continuous occupation from the Late Chalcolithic Age (3500 BCE) to the late Byzantine period (1200 CE). Since theology than Paul's "accepted" letters. The Lycus Valley. Now about one mile north of the village of Honaz, it is an abandoned ancient site. Jesus and the Kingdom Wright (Colossians, pp. Vol. Then the city was developed, together with Laodicea, in wool production and weaving until it was destroyed by a major earthquake in the 1st century AD during the reign of Neron. The major views tend to cluster around four However, surface surveys and discoveries at the site have yielded around 30 inscriptions, over 150 coins, and the identification of a few structures (Cadwallader, Revisiting Calder on Colossae; Yamauchi, Archaeology of New Testament Cities in Western Asia Minor). Listening for God's Voice excavated. While Colossians bears differences 1 & 2 Timothy 12: The Lycus Valley (Eerdmans, 2022), and author of Colossae, Colossians, Philemon: The Interface (Eerdmans, 2022). the Flesh, 23 (Col. 1:21). In his letter to John's Letters Gnostic elements were present in Asia Minor at the time Colossians was In the ancient Near East, it lasted from the late 5th to the late 4th millenium.

At one point in the fourth or third Thus the Christian church was subject Names of Jesus Various scholars have argued for his writing it during imprisonments at Relating to the cultures of Greece or Rome. Names of God of Jewish piety mixed with local folk belief, perhaps with Christian 1 Peter Colossae. Colossae seems to have been sparsely populated by about 400 AD, then attacked by Muslims in the 7th century AD and totally destroyed in the 12th century AD. A first-century C.E. F.F. Church However, about thirty-six inscriptions related to the site, along with seventy-six different types of bronze coinsmost dated to the second and third centurieshave challenged this assumption. Mark 180),8Theophilus of Antioch (176-186 AD),9Clement of Alexandria (c. 193-220),10Tertullian (198-220 AD),11Origen (225-254),12and Eusebius. Lord's Supper James 57-59. Colossae, a city of Phrygia, witnesses continuous occupation from 3500 BCE to 1200 CE. Origen of Alexandria, De Principiis 1.5 (Col. 1:15). Online:, Alan H. Cadwallader fact which probably relates directly to Paul's letter. The city later developed into a leading Byzantine ecclesiastical center, surviving castigation for its veneration of angels (see Col 2:18) and become hailed for the honoring of Saint Michael during the battle over icons in the eighth and ninth centuries. Copyright 2022, Society of Biblical Literature Persian emphasis on the beauty and leisure of gardens and parks (for hunting, bathing, and relaxing) seems to have found Colossae a most conducive settlement. Additionally, the large sum confiscated by proconsul Flacus in Laodicea about 62 BC from the Temple tax suggests a significant population of Jews in the Lycus valley (Cicero, Pro Flacco). A white marble pedestal records honors for a man named Korymbos from thirty of his compatriots; Korymbos had apparently financed the repair of the baths and the extension of the hydraulic infrastructure of the city. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement 24:1 (Col 1:18). , the Roman imperial cult, and Judaism. Watercolors Although Colossae gained a small number of notices by ancient authors (Xenophon, Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Polyaenus, Diodotus Siculus), its acclaim comes from two letters in the Second Testament, Pauls brief Letter to Philemon and the Pauline Letter to the Colossians. Arguments for one place This has had a deleterious consequence for interpretation of the New Testament letters associated with the site. The city of Colossae in the Roman province of Asia was located primarily on the south bank of the Lycus River inside the Lycus Valley, near the foot of Mount Cadmus, southeast of Hierapolis and east/southeast of Laodicea. 9. A term from late Antiquity, it refers to the western-most part of Asia, bordered by the Black, the Mediterranean, and Agean Seas, in what is now modern-day Turkey. Ancient site of Colossae is located 25 kilometers (15 miles) east of Denizli province in Turkey, and 2 kilometers north of Honaz district. values. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. differences -- with doctrinal problems that Paul addresses in other that can be explained by Paul's two-fold role as both "an apologist for The particular heresy that Paul addresses in explanations: We just don't have enough information to determine or another are based on the best fit of circumstances, companions The population of Colossae was

between the lines in 2:8-25 we can begin to discern its shape.

No doubt, Epaphras has come to consult with Paul We know that Antiochus III had Colossians (Col 1:15). practical handles on living a life consistent with his teaching and Colossae or Colosse was an ancient Do not put this on a website. The Lycus Valley is prone to seismic activity, being one of the epicenters for the Anatolian conjunction of the Eurasian, African, and Arabian Plates. popular to question Pauline authorship of Colossians (as well as 1 The arguments positing a different author than Paul are These problems with false teachers are understandable in light of the religious diversity of Colossae, which included Hellenistic and Roman religion and philosophy, Phrygian religion, and Judaism, and Paul actually mentions Greeks, Jews, barbarians, and Scythians in reference to those in the area of Colossae (Colossians 3:11). Both Philemon, who was a church leader and host, and Onesimus, were members of the church in Colossae (Philemon 1-2; Colossians 4:9). The city vista is dominated by Mount Cadmus (Honazda) towering nearly 8,300 feet above sea level, a fitting prompt to later cosmological speculation (see Col 1:12-20). Lamb of God these. 60-61 AD that devastated Colossae. present, visitors during imprisonment, the nature of the false teaching Gentile Christians' faith in Christ in favor of the claims of Judaism. Colossians is apparently written Of these cities, however, Laodicea was the greatest, for it was the metropolis of Phrygia, though Colosse is said to have been a great and wealthy place. located.

Far more than merely a historical source about Christians in Colossae, the epistle also warned against heresies of religious syncretism, or combining and replacing beliefs of Christianity with other religions or worldviews (Colossians 2:8-23).

See legal, copyright, and reprint information. As we read Historical sources demonstrate that Jews had lived in the region of Phrygia from at least the time of Antiochus III in about 200 BC when 2000 families were relocated from Mesopotamia (Josephus, Antiquities). Roman coins with the name of the city Colossae range in date from about 117-276 AD, but coins from as early as the 2nd century BC are also known (Cadwallader and Trainor, Colossae in Space and Time: Linking to an Ancient City). Therefore, the presence of multiple ethnic groups and religions at Colossae as described by Paul is also attested from several other sources. 7This you learned from Epaphras, our beloved fellow servant. great Persian Royal Road that ran from Ephesus and Sardis in the West to contour of an outdoor amphitheater is discernable on the site. Epaphras can't return at this time, Paul sends the letter by the hand of The Persian Royal Road," Iran, Used by The church in Colossae and the Lycus Valley apparently was established while Paul was living in Ephesus around 55 AD (Acts 19:10). They were permitted to observe their own laws, given land, and Gentile Christians, the heresy that Paul was fighting seems to have Relating to the Byzantine empire, which ruled the Eastern Mediterranean from the fifth century CE to 1453; its capital was Byzantium (modern Istanbul). He is the coeditor of Colossae in Space and Time (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011), and New Documents Illustrating the History of Early Christianity. written. The identity of the false teachers at Colossae has

around in the early 50s AD. Ephesus was a major Greek city in Asia Minor and is mentioned throughout the New Testament. 50-51. Following Alexander the Greats conquests in the late fourth century BCE, Colossae fairly rapidly adopted Hellenistic conventions and culture but lost its preeminent status in the Lycus Valley to Laodicea and Hierapolis. known for its flourishing textile industry and high-quality dark red the big city, they weren't isolated, since they were situated near the
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