factories and industries air pollution

Google Scholar. Are You At Risk From Workplace Pollution Causing Injury Or Illness? 2020;28(9):1131722. Li X, Wang C, Zhang G, Xiao L, Dixon J. Urbanisation and human health in China: spatial features and a systemic perspective. The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Majorly an amount of 3.0 thousand tons of sulfur dioxide emits every day while episodes of great activity.

Overall, process control and energy management systems for all industries can better control combustion efficiency and fuel use; combined heat and power systems can use waste heat as additional energy; high-efficiency, low-friction motors and drive systems improved the overall efficiency of successfully generating power. 2020;13(11):137584. Against this backdrop, this study has considered the connection between industrial pollution and health status in the worlds 20 most industrialised countries (see section 3.1). When PM is released into the atmosphere due to traffic and industries, these PM scatter the visible part of the sunlight radiation, but the other part of the spectrum particularly inferred and far-infrared, cause the internal heating effect of the air atmosphere below the PM surface. Evidence from the worlds most industrialised countries. [77]. [33], Sajedinejad et al. Nss , Nafstad P, Aamodt G, Claussen B, Rosland P. Relation between concentration of air pollution and cause-specific mortality: four-year exposures to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter pollutants in 470 neighborhoods in Oslo, Norway. 2019;11(15):4150. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154150. Below you will find some of the major impacts that industrial pollution has caused to the environment. Cheng JJ, Schuster-Wallace CJ, Watt S, Newbold BK, Mente A. Regarding to the living quality it will be serious concern if no additional control measures were implemented in future. The results show that the null hypothesis of cross-sectional dependence is rejected at the 1% statistical significance level for all variables used in this study implying that there is strong evidence of the presence of cross-sectional dependence. While working on a home project, use paint and other products with less volatile compounds. 1972;80(2):22355. From coal mining, there are four main sources of methane emissions, which are underground coal mines and surface coal mines. Baloch MA, Zhang J, Iqbal K, Iqbal Z. A simple working method can calculate the relative contribution of the unit emissions of each gas relative to the cumulative CO2 unit emissions over a fixed period of time [20, 21]. Most of the industries were in compliance of national quality standards of Pakistan, i.e., 800mg/Nm3. Leogrande S, Alessandrini ER, Stafoggia M, Morabito A, Nocioni A, Ancona C, et al. In developing economies combustion of biomass generally refers to the biofuels combustion for heating, lighting purposesand cooking in small combustion equipment. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Google Scholar. PubMed Central Organic matter gradually reduces the water and oxygen in soil during flooding of rice fields; as a result, methane is produce by anaerobic decomposition [34, 35]. Table 1 illustrates the results of emissions from boilers. Carbon emissions and industrial growth: an ARDL analysis for Pakistan. As an example rapid industrial expansion is China. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. The energypollutionhealth nexus: A panel data analysis of low- and middle-income Asian countries. (5.1) in Model 1 of Table4. Environmental pollution contributes to climate change, which has various negative impacts on human health like perinatal disorders, infant mortality, respiratory disorders, allergies, malignancies, cardiovascular disorders, increase in oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and mental disorders [1, 2]. 2020;186:109551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109551. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwk016. The current study explores the link between health status and industrial pollution in the worlds 20 most industrialised countries, controlling for some other variables. By Maria Jdrusik, Dariusz uszkiewicz and Arkadiusz By Rakhi Tailor, Yogesh Kumar Vijay and Minal Bafna, HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM, Rabia Munsif, Muhammad Zubair, Ayesha Aziz and Muhammad Nadeem Zafar. Its emission through agriculture sector increased by 1124% from 2000 to 2010 [33, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50]. CAS Rotary concentrators combined with oxidizers are ideal for chemical processing, surface coating, and wood finishing facilities, just to name a few. Article Sustainable economic development: Sustainable economic development along with environmental considerations is required to make the earth habitable for future generations. Carbon emissions positively and significantly contribute to industrial pollution which leads to an increase in the crude death rate, suggesting that a 1% increase in CO2 emissions increases crude death rate by 0.10% in the worlds twenty most industrialised countries. 2014;11(9):925672. Shifting to low-carbon fuels from high-carbon can be comparatively cost-effective principle to reduce the emissions of gaseous because this enhance the efficiency of combustion and reduce the amount of pollutants. The importance of sanitation facilities on the mortality rate cannot be ignored and a number of studies have revealed their role (see [8, 14,15,16, 27, 30,31,32]; among others). Singap Econ Rev. This pre-combustion method requires almost no hardware changes to the facility and therefore has a lower investment cost. In case of CO2 related pollution, Duong and Jayanthakumaran [41] found that an increase in CO2 emissions caused poor health for 60 provinces in Vietnam. Natural gas collected from landfills can be transported to local industries directly and use as an alternative or supplementary fuel [64]. Four of the most commonly used abatement techniques include: Known as RTOs, regenerative thermal oxidizers employ high temperatures to destroy pollutants before they are released into the environment. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-819001-2.00021-8. Fayissa B, Gutema P. Estimating a health production function for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Use of Synchronous Fluorescence Technique in E Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan. These are: Volatile organic compounds, known as VOCs, are airborne pollutants that may cause both short and long-term health conditions in humans. Manufacturing is a major candidate for improving energy efficiency, both of which are achieved through many technological upgrades. A series of econometric procedures have been applied to check the unbalanced panel data. Sustainable development goals (SDGs) : Goal 3. A massive amount of gaseous emissions are produced from generators along with heating which affect the climatic condition at the large scale [4]. In contrast, Cavalcanti et al. Attari MIJ, Hussain M, Javid AY. Over the past 150years, humans have driven enough CO2 into the atmosphere to make its levels higher than they have been for hundreds of thousands of years. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09774-1. [43] obtained evidence of pre-mature mortality due to cross state air pollution in the USA, and in four Nordic countries, respectively. Natural sources are particulate matter (PM) includes dust produced from the earths crustal surface, coastal sea salt, form pollens of plant and animal debris [51]. The standard fixed effect model will not be able to produce robust results if a panel data set contains heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, and cross-sectional dependence. Kelishadi R. Environmental pollution: health effects and operational implications for pollutants removal. In order to restrict global warming, there is a need to take different measures.

Ukaogo PO, Ewuzie U, Onwuka CV. Sustainable Development Goals. Int J Public Health Res. However, Cheung et al. Our obtained results confirm this proposition empirically. Volcanic eruptions also contribute huge quantities of particles into the environment. Article Industrial processes upgradation, energy efficiency, agricultural waste burning control, and fuel conversion are important aspects to reducing pollutants which create the industrial air pollution. [44] for northern Italy, Isphording and Pestel [45] for Germany, Marqus et al. Shobande OA. 2016;50:99114. Int J Environ Health Res. [27] found that higher physician density rate worked as the significant reducing factor of infant and child mortality rate in the context of 136 UN member countries, where a mixed effects linear regression model based on 2008 cross-sectional data is employed. Econ Model. For applying Driscoll and Kraays [38] standard error technique, this study follows a two-steps procedure. Jalil A. Energygrowth conundrum in energy exporting and importing countries: evidence from heterogeneous panel methods robust to cross-sectional dependence.

The energy of the actual industrial operation is used in the abatement process whenever possible, which involves a network of high-efficiency heat exchangers. Among other sources of natural pollution of air includes lighting in the sky that generate significant quantities of oxides of nitrogen (NOx); hydrogen sulphide produced from oceans algae and marshy methane. In this context, Jebeli et al. The average values obtained from the product of independent variables and residuals is the first step. [23] for China, Lehtomki et al. The illegal dumping of contaminated water, gases, chemicals, heavy metals or radioactive materials into major waterways causes damage to marine life and the environment as a whole. Because the conditions of burning and types of these fuels vary widely, measures for this category are highly difficult anduncertain to predict. (2020). As far as the human sources are concerned in urban areas, air pollutants come from human-activities, such as cars, trucks, air planes, marine engines, etc. In this setting, the null hypothesis has cross-sectional independence with CD ~ N (0, 1). A small percentage of chest infections, lung diseases and heart diseases can also be attributed to pollution according to the WHO. This is a panel data study covering the data period 19602019. 2018;25(26):2603045. Consistent covariance matrix estimation with spatially dependent panel data. Air pollution aggravating COVID-19 lethality? The effect of nitrous oxide emissions on crude death rate is positive and statistically significant at the 1% level implying that a 1% increase in of nitrous oxide emissions increases crude death rate by 0.07% in the sample countries. Target 3.9: By 2030, Substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination [poster]. The role of more physicians in the most industrialised countries to ensure lower mortality rate has not been observed in the past literature. Shetty and Shetty [29] also concluded that the number of doctors per capita had an opposing affiliation with the mortality rate in the case of Asian countries. Significant amount of air pollutants depending on nature of fuel enter into the environment. Royal Mail is just one such company that has faced these legal claims in recent years and many feel that it could open the doors for many more to face similar claims in years to come. Similar findings of COVID-19 related mortality were also observed by Coker et al. Part of MMR: Study plan; conceptual and methodological development; variable selection; data collection; econometric estimation, and data and result analysis; writing abstract; writing main sections of the paper; econometric estimation, and data and result analysis; polishing and editing, and improving the quality of the manuscript; overall supervision. [20] for Nordic countries, Rajak and Chattopadhyay [22] for India, and Brito [39] for Portugal. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2020-co2-emissions.pdf. [25], among others. Some works that considered CO2 emissions on the relationship with other variables were also found; in the literature (see Mehmood [50] for Singapore, and Mehmood and Tariq [51, 52], and Mehmood et al. Generally, in Pakistan the electric power supply is not adequate and consistent for supporting employments; consequently, to overcome electric energy shortage all business sectors still extensively use their private generator (Figure 1). As a result of the pollution that is created from toxic and dangerous materials into our environment, not only does the planets ecosystem come under threat, but our own health is potentially at risk too. Grossman [55] introduces the health production function, which explains the link between health input and an individuals health output. We examine the impact of industrial pollution on health status at the macro level. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.059. Well-organized urbanization: Well-planned urban facilities may increase living standards and increase quality of life by establishing well-organized housing, industries, hospitals, supplying electricity, clean water and hygienic sanitation facilities. 2015;11(1):4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-015-0087-y. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-020-00486-1. The GDP per capita and urbanization are significant at the 5% level. This study, therefore, explores the link between health status and industrial pollution for the top 20 industrialised countries of the world. Google Scholar. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); Request a quote below and let us know how we can assist you or provide more information on our VOC destruction systems. More strictly, pollutants can be defined a substance which is potentially unsafe to the well-being or health of humans, plant and animal life, or ecosystems. 1998;80(4):54960. PubMed Occup Environ Med. Associations between the incidence and mortality rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution: a 12-year cohort study in northern China. Crude death rate is used to represent health status, and CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries and construction, and nitrous oxide emissions are considered as markers for industrial pollution. 49. In cities where strategic planning is not-existing or weak, to improve the quality of air there should be an implementation of environmental management system. As the greenhouse gases absorbs infrared radiation from the surface of the planet so its presence is good for the planet. Article Industrial pollution and human health: evidence from middle-income countries. Marqus M, Rovira J, Nadal M, Domingo JL. 2018;14(1):113. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-018-0430-1. It was noticed that boilers operating on furnace oil have larger value of smoke than on natural gas. Therefore, global warming potential (GWP) can be defined as the warming effect of any greenhouse gas relative to CO2 over a certain period of time. pollution taj mahal heritage fd indian vs polluted industries environment followgreenliving The two most common ways companies can reduce their air pollution emissions are: Greener, more energy-efficient operations tend to reduce the amount of pollution a factory generates. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3992-9. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Due to all the reasons above, many species have come close to extinction and many more are likely to face a similar fate if we do not reduce the amount of damage we are doing to this planet in the future. Renew Sust Energ Rev. Contrarily by adding ventilation, using air purifiers, purifying radon gas, running exhaust fans in bathrooms and kitchens and avoiding smoking people can avoid indoor air pollution. 2020;13(6):67382. Produced of methane by coalification process, and vegetation is transformed into coal by many environmental conditions [58]. 2019;26(9):883846.

The countries are China, United States, Japan, Germany, South Korea, India, Italy, France, United Kingdom, Mexico, Indonesia, Russia, Brazil, Canada, Spain, Turkey, Thailand, Switzerland, Ireland and Netherland. Sci Total Environ. These pollutants including vapors, aerosols, solid particles, toxic gases and smoke drive from industrial processes. All rights reserved. 2020;23(4):640817. 2020;76(4):61134. The economic growth, access to physicians, and sanitation have a negative and significant effect on the crude death rate. As we touched on earlier, a huge portion of climate change or global warming can be attributed to our reliance on industrial activities over the years. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. While these products may be extremely helpful, their production also puts a huge amount of stress on the environment and our health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11293-y. Using semi-parametric analysis, Liebert and Mder [26] also observed that higher physician density reduced infant mortality in Germany from the data of 19281936. Google Scholar. As humans that are exposed to air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution among others, we also face an increased risk of falling victim to illness and disease. Baum CF. 2018;29(3):54954. Factories might not be the sole contributor to the man-made damage that continues to be done to the planet but they are certainly one of the biggest. Is energy security a driver for economic growth? To what extent does access to improved sanitation explain the observed differences in infant mortality in Africa? New to VOC Control Technology? 2019;8:70. Industrial process emits huge amounts of organic compounds carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and chemicals into the air. | All Rights Reserved. The average thermal performance of current combustion is 3233% [67]. Air quality regulations determine the operational fuel input rather than power output emission to upgrade of thermal efficiency. Therefore, minimisation of industrial pollution should be the topmost policy agenda in these countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res. [25] and Anwar et al. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 5% of those diagnosed with lung cancer will be due to extended exposure to pollution. 2007;7(3):281312. PubMed Central Globally methane emission is much lower than CO2 emissions annually. Similarly, Wang [37] found that the increase in urbanization is significantly linked with reduced mortality, under-five mortality, and infant mortality in 163 countries during 19902012, and the effect is stronger in high-income nations. These chemicals and toxic materials can destroy the fertility of the soil, decrease the productivity of crops and even lead to the contamination of foods that we may eventually consume. Springer Nature. 2019;30(6):593617. 2002;360(9341):12104. Compensation Penalties For Environmental Law. Emission of air pollutants is also because of many human actions. Karimi B, Shokrinezhad B. Alemu AM. Our team is growing all the time, so were always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. Bauleo L, Bucci S, Antonucci C, Sozzi R, Davoli M, Forastiere F, et al. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the worlds most-cited researchers. WDI. PLoS One. Factories can also be directly blamed for destroying certain areas of nature on our beautiful planet. Licensee IntechOpen. In their studies, the researchers did not focus on the rigorous estimation regarding the impact of the CO2 emissions and nitrous oxide emissions as outcomes of industrial pollution on the death rate, considering the panel of most industrialised countries. Catalytic oxidizers use a combination of chemical catalysts and high temperatures to break down pollutants into harmless compounds. This article will talk about the different ways that factories and other industrial operations can reduce air pollution and destroy these compounds before they enter our atmosphere. The policy implication of this study is that the mitigation of industrial pollution, considering other pertinent factors, should be addressed appropriately by enunciating effective policies to reduce the human death rate and improve health status in the studied panel countries. *Address all correspondence to: muhammad.zubair@uog.rdu.pk. Energy Pol. [25] found that the physician density reduces infant mortality both in the short run and long run, where global data of 19602000 are used. Is industrial pollution detrimental to public health? Demography. By critically analysing the research, it has been observed that past studies did not consider the significance of education in determining the death rate in the panel of most industrialised countries. A number of industrial sources are responsible for the emission of carbon monoxide along with, fuel-fired boilers, internal combustion gas boilers and gas stoves [5]. Therefore, a complete well-organized urbanization policy design is urgently needed in conjunction with other policies.

[40] maintained that control of the particulate air pollution significantly reduces the death rate from the comparison of pre and post 72months ban on coal sales in Dublin, Ireland. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.107.2019.73.209.218. Mehmood U. Globalization-driven CO2 emissions in Singapore: an application of ARDL approach. [35] identified that education reduced the maternal mortality rate in 179 countries Ray and Linden (2020) observed that the primary education rate significantly reduced infant mortality in 195 countries during the data period of 19952014. This study explores the relationship between health status and industrial pollution in the worlds 20 most industrialised countries. CESifo working paper no. Energy Econ. 2012;2012:12. In this perspective, a concrete policy venture for generating abundant physician numbers and ease access to them to protect human health is essential. The individual health production function can be explained as below: where HO indicates an individuals health output and HI denotes input needed for an individuals health. Greenhouse gas emissions from various sources have led to climate change, which has been accompanied by an increase in greenhouse gases [22, 23]. https://doi.org/10.1086/259880. These gases are emitted by natural and anthropogenically. First, it is one of the best techniques if there is any scope of heteroscedasticity, cross-sectional dependency and serial correlation in the data [64,65,66]. From the current literature it may be observed that the existing identifications regarding the impact of industrial pollution, density of physicians, access to clean water and sanitation facilities, education, and the urbanization rate on human health status are not unanimous and conclusive. Similar results were also found by Muldoon et al. While a greater urbanisation rate increases different health related amenities which reduces mortality rate on the one hand, it also increases mortality by increasing pollution due to different urban activities ([9, 16, 17, 32, 36, 37]; and [27]). Table2 presents the results of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. KA: Literature review; writing introductory sections, conclusion and mention policy implications; helping to complete the paper; undertaking the responsibility of corresponding author of this paper. [19] found a positive association between industrial PM10 and mortality from non-accidental causes, all cancers, and cardiac diseases, for the industrial area of Civitavecchia, Italy. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X0100100108. 2020;57(4):151341.

For the emission of carbon dioxide from any type of combustion source a prescribed national standard was present but it is important to check that carbon dioxide emission enter into air at steep rate. The air pollution is because of a complex interaction of dispersion and emission of toxic pollutants from manufactories. These processes account for most of the global emissions of methane from mining. Environ Sci Pollut Res. Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data, vol. Environ Resour Econ. BMC Public Health https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2018-105059. Sarkodie SA, Strezov V. Effect of foreign direct investments, economic development and energy consumption on greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Article Similarly, having access to the required number of physicians also plays an important role in reducing the mortality rate by providing more effective health care services ([11, 25,26,27,28]; and [29]).

Rev Econ Stat, 80, 549560, 1998) standard error technique is employed to deal with heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation and cross-sectional dependence problems. Similarly, important air pollutants emitted from power station are particulate matter (fly ash and soot) oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO) and sulfur oxides (SO3 and SO2) [16, 17].

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