daubers have a very long petiole. (To see it in context with other Jurassic fossils [from the above long list] click HERE). Upper Jurassic of Karatau. The apical and posterior marginal areas of the forewing are almost devoid of veins. It runs from wing-base to pterostigma, but not beyond the latter. pseudopods. While being dragged to n., plus anciens reprsentants connus de la tribu Trypoxylini de sphcides, sont dcrits de lambre de locne basal de France. Upper Jurassic of Karatau. (Palaeodictyoptera).
Family Ephialtitidae. Family Heloridae In: Page 724, 6th ed. Upper Jurassic of Karatau. One remarkable venational feature deserves attention right now. Wing(s) of Symphyogaster cylindrica Wing of Stephanogaster magna. The Ephialtitidae and Megalyridae are, undoubtedly, closely connected phylogenetically, but to unite them into a single superfamily is hardly rational. Wing(s) of Mesaulacinus tenuis Forewing : Radio-Medial T-vein developed. Radio-Medial T-vein well developed.
O'Brien, Solitary Wasps: Behavior and Natural History (Cornell Series in Arthropod Biology). The cross-veins 1m-cu and 2m-cu are present. We will be informed about the specific difficulties that are encountered when trying to determine prototypic venations.
caterpillars, some females malaxate the venter of prey after it is Cubitus 2-branched.
So although the wing-venation is as such non-functional, it is nevertheless not entirely free to mutate into any venational pattern whatsoever. Family Eurytomidae Family Eumenidae. Between the longitudinal veins and branches there exists a primitive archedictyon (not drawn) which is a more or less dense mesh-work of veinlets. Indeed, our theory must be such as to accommodate these facts of derivability, and our considerations took care of that. And if it is certain that some particular vein present in venation C has disappeared in venation D, the latter condition can formally be derived from the former. Figure 39 : After having separated again from M, the Radial Sector runs parallel to the anterior wing-margin for quite a distance until the cross-vein 2r-rs (running backwards). Pour citer cet article: A.Nel, C.R. Palevol 4 (2005). Wing(s) of Karataviola micrura. The cross-veins 2r-m and 3r-m present as oblique veins. Family Maimetshidae (Superfamily Ceraphronoidea). Figure 1 : Proapocritus praecursor Rasn. C. Brown Co. 409 p. Borror, (After RICHARDS and DAVIES, in Imms' General Textbook of Entomology, 1977. themselves to a single host species, while others may attack individuals of Figure 2 : Strongly changed venation in Apocrita. Lower Dogger (?) We may identify, for example a two-branched Radial Sector, but we generally cannot retrieve whether these branches are R2 and R3, or R4 and R5, or R2 and R5, etc. Figure 93D : Forewing of Zdenekia grandis Kuk. Length of wing 5 mm. Subcosta absent (or coalesced with R). Taimyr.
Length of wing 2.5 mm. Smart (1951, 1953), following Snodgrass (1935), designates 1A as the post-cubitus (Pcu) while he takes the anterior supplementary branch 2A characteristic only of Blattodea and Mantodea as 1A. Length of wing 8.1 mm. Upper Jurassic of Karatau. the World. Figure 77 : Figure 81 : La nervation de laile antrieure dEopison est plus complte que celles de tous les Trypoxylini actuels, suggrant que la rduction des cellules submarginales des Sphecidae a une histoire complexe. It is the direction of the very first section of the Radial Sector when it branches off from the Radius.
it abruptly bends up) meeting the cross-vein connecting it to the pterostigma, and then proceeds to the anterior wing-margin after having given off two cross-veins to the Media. Family Ephialtitidae. RA = Radius (radius anterior), MP = posterior Media, MA = anterior Media. Top image : Right forewing of Aeolothrips kuwanaii. Figure 75 : Figure 52 : Family Ephialtitidae. Second and third anal veins absent. Upper Jurassic of Karatau. only temporary to permanent paralysis, and in some cases, to immediate The cross-veins 2r-m and 3r-m present. Figure 6 :
Wing of Brachycleistogaster karatavica. Family Anthophoridae Family Halictidae. Family Braconidae, Apocrita-Terebrantia. nymphs in the southwestern United States. Right wings of Scolia maculata, Family Scoliidae, Dagger Wasps, Apocrita-Aculeata. (After COMSTOCK and NEEDHAM, 1898-9, in COMSTOCK, 1918), Figure 93K : The hypothetical primitive type of wing-tracheation and venation with the named cross-veins added. Martynov (1937) and Zeuner (1939) designate this vein in Orthoptera as MP.
Wing of Cleistogaster oculata.
the cubital groove is sharply pronounced, separating the anal region (clavus) [from the rest of the forewing], but in the more primitive representatives (image C in Figure 93G) the CuP branched at the end, and the cubital groove was not deep. It is visible in the next Figure.
Superfamily Evanioidea. Family Ephialtitidae. Wing(s) of Cleistogaster seticornis Upper Jurassic of Karatau. Length of wing 4.5 mm. 1989. Wing venation of Hymenoptera. Family Megalyridae. n. and Pison eocenicus sp.
Wing of Bethylonymellus microgaster. of the given insect species or higher taxon. Family Megalyridae.
(After HANDLIRSCH, 1906-8, in COMSTOCK, 1918), Figure 93J : The forewing of a nymph of Nemoura (Plecoptera). caterpillars of Lepidoptera or other Hymenoptera. Most species mass provision their nests before laying eggs. Changes of the same type in the position of the branches of MA also occurred in Orthoptera but the MP in them is preserved, and the pre-costal field of the forewings underwent further development. 20-40 mm. Figure 25 : known as thread-waisted wasps. Wing(s) of Brachycleistogaster nigripes.
Wings of Symphytopterus nigricornis Upper Jurassic of Karatau. Figure 2 : Left wings of, A, an Ichneumonid and, B, a Braconid, to show the absence of 2m-cu in the forewing of the latter, and the different positions of r-m in the hindwing. persues grasshopper
All longitudinal veins are heavily branched and are, along their entire lengths, connected with each other by numerous cross-veins, resulting in small cells all over the wing surface. Venation extremely reduced. Family Fideliidae As far as I know, this form (and also its relatives) is a minute wasp, and it is interesting to see that despite its small size its wing-venation is fairly complete. Left image : Forewing of Megachile. This evolutionary tendency and corresponding processes result in the at least formal derivability of later wings from earlier ones. Family Megalyridae. A similar structure of the abdominal hinge do possess also some mesozoic Megalyridae, but in them this feature is not stable (closely related forms may possess a broad or a narrow hinge) and usually is accompanied by a specialization (small size, reduced venation) and, probably, it appears in them secondarily and several times (secondary broadening of the hinge opening is characteristic also of some Chalcidoidea, also minute compact insects with reduced venation, but already in the context of the reduction of the second abdominal segment up to the hinge ring). Figure 62 : Carpenter (1944), noting that in Cacurgidae this vein is convex, did not agree with this interpretation and took it as CuA, which at the base was supposed to merge with M. Such an interpretation is inconsistent with the following two aspects : firstly, no case is known in which the base of CuA is present in the form of a vein diverging from CuP towards M. Secondly, it is not possible to see how in such a case we can interpret the part of the vein leaving CuP and situated more proximally to the oblique vein under discussion. Figure 8 : Figure 5 : The image was drawn by Giancarlodessi.
Length of wing 1.8 mm. The pale areas foreshadow the course of the wing-veins in the adult. Length of wing 3.6 mm. (Detail of figure after SEVERA, in ZAHRADNIK, Thieme's Insektengids), Figure 93B : Left wings of Xylocopa violacea, Woodbee. Neocom (lower-lower Cretaceous) of Zabaikalj. Forewing of a braconid.
stung. Some species pinch the neck
This structure became very wide-spread among Apocrita. &
Family Ephialtitidae. Family Tiphiidae Blue : course of Radial Sector.
and during the day are found in the soil at the bases of their food plants Trupochalcididae (Upper Cretaceous). A number of prey are stung at one time, but only the last one stung is Wing of Ichneumonomima paradoxa. Cross-vein 2r-rs present. Wing of Symphytopterus pallicornis. Wings of Cleistogaster buriatica Family Aulacidae (see systematics). Proximal part of wing (forewing) very narrow. Megalyridae (Jurassic-Cretaceous-Recent). Figure 49a : Wing(s) of Mesaulacinus sculpturatus (Same as in Figure 49). and so it is not fixed as to the direction of derivability in one or the other Order : In the Explicate Order as well as in the Implicate Order derivability of a given wing-venation always means the derivability from the venational prototype ('archetype') of the insect Order of which the species possessing this venation is a member. (After RICHARDS and DAVIES, in Imms' General Textbook of Entomology, 1977.). When we have found it we can then derive the venation of all insects from this prototypic venation, and can also identify each vein in the wing of any insect whatsoever. We will now present a number of wings of fossil Apocrita, beginning with the family Ephialtitidae from the Jurassic. Among the common genera, Sceliphron Length of wing 3 mm. Although having the wing-membrane provided with veins is, as has been said, a functional feature, the status of the 7-system vein-scheme, the comstock-needham scheme of insect wing-venation, is not, as far as I could detect, functional, but purely formal (like it is also the case with, for instance, the five-fold (instead of four-, six-, seven-, etc.-fold) symmetry of starfishes and of many flowers). To me the original primitive type of wing-venation of all insects proposed by Comstock and Needham in 1898-1899 seems to be the most probable because it is based on ontological studies. Cross-vein 1r-rs is absent. Figure 71 : Recent. Radio-Medial T-vein not yet developed (first section of RS more or less perpendicular to R). Wings of Symphytopterus clavicornis (After RASNITSYN, 1969)
Further folds, such as the ring-fold (Rf), ensure the wing becoming a small package. Superfamily Evanioidea. Length of wing 2.5 mm. Compare with the Jurassic form depicted in Figure 57. ?Superfamily Scolioidea. Venation almost completely reduced.
He regarded it, starting from the notions of Comstock and Needham on the four-branched Media, as an additional fifth branch (M5) of this vein. The wing is spread out evenly, and the sclerotized structures are kept dark. All other veins are absent. The white cavities foreshadow the veins of the adult. As has been explained in earlier documents, the strategies of complex notic patterns to exist in the Explicate Order (as organisms) are 'forged' in the Implicate Order, and they then turn out to together form a set of notic strategies (notic descriptions) of which the members notically relate to each other derivationally. This inhomogeneous distribution is accomplished by the shift of the course of several existing longitudinal veins, and by the disappearance of some of them, or by the lessening of their branching, and, finally, by the shift or disappearance of many cross-veins. In the forewings only one or two veins are left. To cite this article: A.Nel, C.R. Palevol 4 (2005). Figure 69 : Wing(s) (fr.) Serv., Div. Eopison menieri gen. n., sp. Length of wing about 3.5 mm. One such non-functional character is the wing-venation in insects (minus, of course, certain functional details of it). See C and E in the next Figure. Figure 78 : Wing of Anomopterella stenocera. The wing is thus relatively few-veined, and the veins are distributed more or less evenly over the wing-blade, that is, they do not bring about a marked differentiation of parts of the wing-blade. Apocrita-Aculeata. adults or nymphs of Conocephalus Length of wing 1.7 mm. As a result, he proposed that the names and designations of the veins be changed. Figure 74 : burrows in the soil. There are also But rather that we are to consider other evidence as well as that presented by the tracheation.". And the area enclosed by R, CuA+M, M, and RS, will be called the Radio-Medial Triangle. Wings of Bethylonymus robustus. Upper Jurassic of Karatau.
Wing of Cleistogaster curtis. Superfamily Evanioidea. Media, after having arched up a long way, coalesces with RS near the pterostigma (base of RS absent) for some distance while arching down again together with RS (merged with it) [M+RS]), and then leaves it independently again, heading to the distal part of the posterior wing-margin. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Borror, (After COMSTOCK, 1918), Figure 93M : Representative of Palaeodictyoptera -- Stenodictya sp. Figure 54 : Radio-Medial T-vein well developed. Length of wing about 2 mm. Figure 90 : Scolia maculata, Family Scoliidae, Dagger Wasps, Apocrita-Aculeata. These changes are, however, just minor changes in the venation. pyriformis Family Tenthredinidae, Symphyta. RS+M short. Length of wing 4.4 mm. Figure 64 : Family Proctotrupidae Older The first anal vein is very short, it stops about at the level where M arches upward from CuA+M. Family Cynipidae. (Mecoptera). Superfamily Ceraphronoidea. (Protoblattodea).
There is a After paralyzing the cricket, the wasp drags it by its antennae back 2022 BugGuide gathering in New Mexico July 20-24! 2 p. Figure 53 : The requirement of formal derivability of the venation of a given member of some insect Order from the latter's venational prototype is in the Implicate Order, together with the requirement of this derived venation with the qualitative content of the strategy notically representing the corresponding insect species in the Explicate Order. cavities in wood, etc. Some also Then RS continues its course and then, as it seems, folds back toward the pterostigmal area. 397) . of Leptephialtites So any given wing-venation has three basic roots as to its whatness and origination : (1) the wing-venation prototypic of the Class Insecta (=the qualitative content of the general insect-strategy), the comstock-needham scheme, (2) the wing-venation as it is in the prototype of the given insect Order (=the qualitative content of a given less general insect-strategy), whereby this Order-prototype necessarily implies the Class-prototype, the comstock-needham scheme, and (3) the gradual small venational mutations as a result of factors active in the Explicate Order. Radio-Medial Y-vein has 'pulled' the Radius downward. In the Implicate Order it is the strategies (s.str.)
Figure 26 : But despite its ancientry (Upper Carboniferous) and despite its allegedly primitive venation, Stenodictya was a specialized insect, as is witnessed by its piercing mouthparts (see previous Figure). The venation of some Protoblattodea (image E in Figure 93G) is still very close to that of Protoptera [Paoliidae and allies]. Terminology based on Ross(1936). Family Bethylonymidae From the pterostigma from left to right two cross-veins go down : 1r-rs and 2r-rs. Then we see the long cross-vein 2m-cu connecting the Media with the Cubitus (CuA). Ichneumonomimidae (Lower-lower Cretaceous). Family Apidae. In representatives of the superfamilies Ideliidea and Liomopteridea the base of MP was reduced, and together with this there was displacement in the first fork of MA closer to the base of the wing up to the level of the origin of RS or even more proximal, and the posterior branch assumed a concave position which lead the author (Sharov, 1961, 1962) to regard it erroneously as MP.