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In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system. A light-weighted X-band polarimetric radar can rapidly respond to the situation and provide continuous rainfall information with high resolution for flood forecast and emergency management.

Precipitation characteristics of independent storm cells associated with these four events, as well as the storm-scale differences, are investigated using short-term vertical profiles of reflectivity clusters.

7 min.) The forecasting system is characterized by combining the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) package. The calibration of the radar receiver is operationally monitored by analyzing the received power from the sun. As a result, scientists have turned to neural networks that employ computer vision to identify hail-bearing storms (Marzbanet al., 2001).

There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. Stough, Sarah M.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.

(a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment Aircraft and Equipment 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. mean and covariance) have been computed off-line at gauges location, along with the parameters describing the error temporal correlation. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity.

Contributions from each of these entities resulted in the upgrade of a surplus National Weather Service WSR-74C radar to a research-grade C-band polarimetric radar.

A few clouds. Other systems in process are the Central Weather Processor (CWP), and the terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR). During wet weather conditions the infiltration phenomenon typically increases the risk of overflows in the sewer system as well as the risk of having to bypass the WWTP. Several examples are presented: in a blocking highs situation an atmospheric wave system at the Brunt-Vaisala frequency can be clearly distinguished; in a situation of clouds without rain the limit between clear air and clouds can be easily seen; and a windshear associated with a gust front in rainy conditions is shown.

At the international level, action is being taken to improve access to information services. Chapter 13. Results confirm that the attenuation signature in X-SAR images collected over land, particularly pronounced in the presence of heavy precipitation cells, can be related to the S-band radar reflectivity integrated along the same path. Previous research has indicated that general aviation (GA) pilots may use the sophisticated meteorological information available to them via a variety of Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) based weather products in a manner that actually decreases flight safety.

A study was conducted in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas to determine the capability of Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) to monitor migratory flights of corn ea Impact of dual-polarization radar technology and Twitter on the Hattiesburg, Mississippi tornado.

Findings are included from a special team workshop and feedback from conference present Time-dependent Second Order Scattering Theory for Weather Radar with a Finite Beam Width, Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Ito, Shigeo; Oguchi, Tomohiro. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Finally, the reliability of the VAHIRR radar product was tested with real-time level II radar data from the WSR-88D NWS Melbourne radar. Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S. The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981.

The results indicated that the LLCC based on the VAHIRR product would pose a negligible risk of flying through hazardous electric fields.

Radar responses that are governed by small-scale surface roughness may serve to distinguish flow types, but do not provide unambiguous information.

We present here the most prominent events recorded since the last Meteoritical Society meeting, covering most of 2015 and early 2016. With the various data sets correlation analyzes were executed.

Among others, one of the most important limiting factors in radar QPE accuracy is the vertical variability of particle size distribution that affects at different levels, all the radar variables acquired as well as rain rates. Real-time and areal monitoring of a volcano eruption, in terms of its intensity and dynamics, is not always possible by conventional visual inspections, especially during worse visibility periods which are quite common during eruption activity.

Chandrasekar, V.; Wang, Y.; Maki, M.; Nakane, K. A dense weather radar network is an emerging concept advanced by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). Possible future datalinks include satellite downlink and specialized en route weather channels.

The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. Satellite- and model-based estimates are spatially continuous datasets, however they lack the high resolution information many applications often require. A cell is defined as a local maximum in the Vertical Integrated Liquid (VIL), and the echo area is divided between cells using a watershed algorithm. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250.

Polarimetric measurements are not available from current airborne tail Doppler radars. To correct for the first group of errors, the quality of the weather radar reflectivity data was improved by successively correcting for 1) clutter and anomalous propagation, 2) radar calibration, 3) wet radome attenuation, 4) signal attenuation and 5) the vertical profile of reflectivity. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given.

The study area is located in Sabancuy-Campeche, Mexico (Latitude 18.97 N, Longitude 91.17 W) and, Doppler Radar National Mosaic - NOAA's National Weather Service, Skip Navigation Links weather.gov NOAA logo-Select to go to the NOAA homepage National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Select to go to the NWS homepage National Weather Service Site Map News select the go button to submit request City, St Go Sign-up for Email Alerts RSS Feeds RSS Feeds Warnings, Effects of Tunable Data Compression on Geophysical Products Retrieved from Surface Radar Observations with Applications to Spaceborne Meteorological Radars, Gabriel, Philip M.; Yeh, Penshu; Tsay, Si-Chee. Optical remote sensing technology has been exploited for monitoring cover crops.

In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor.

We show that when weather echoes give rise to higher reflectivity values than that of the wind farm, the negative impact of the wind turbines disappears for all spectral moments. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, and it provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. 2 min.)

Carver, Amber; Ross, Jeremy D.; Augustine, David J.; Skagen, Susan K.; Dwyer, Angela M.; Tomback, Diana F.; Wunder, Michael B. Small-bodied terrestrial animals such as songbirds (Order Passeriformes) are especially vulnerable to hail-induced mortality; yet, hail events are challenging to predict, and they often occur in locations where populations are not being studied.

In summary, a fast running method has been investigated which can be incorporated into computational models to enhance understanding and prediction of MMW propagation through various atmospheric and weather conditions.

PMID:26649276, Capturing atmospheric effects on 3D millimeter wave radar propagation patterns, Cook, Richard D.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Keefer, Kevin J.; Stringer, Jeremy. Lightning jump as a nowcast predictor: Application to severe weather events in Catalonia. The migration events typically occurred during clear sky conditions in the presence of surface high pressure and colder than average surface temperatures.

These radars were developed at Goddard over the last decade and have been used for satellite algorithm development and validation (TRMM and Cloudsat), and for hurricane and convective storm research.

Comparison of the earliest OT detection associated with a severe weather report showed that 75% of the cases occur before severe weather and that 42% of collocated severe, A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements, Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone, Monitoring weather phenomena from radar has an essential role in nowcasting applications.

Road weather information for travelers : improving road weather messages and dissemination methods.

Early in the development of the CaPA system, weather radar reflectivity was identified as a very promising additional data source for the precipitation analysis, but necessary quality control procedures and bias-correction algorithms were lacking for the radar data.

State transportation agencies have developed road weather information systems (RWIS) to address such challenges. Observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at a cloud base with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) and weather radars, Luce, Hubert; Mega, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Masayuki K.; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukao, Shoichiro; Nishi, Noriyuki; Tajiri, Takuya; Nakazato, Masahisa, Using the very high frequency (46.5 MHz) middle and upper atmosphere radar (MUR), Ka band (35 GHz) and X band (9.8 GHz) weather radars, a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability occurring at a cloud base and its impact on modulating cloud bottom altitudes are described by a case study on 8 October 2008 at the Shigaraki MU Observatory, Japan (34.85N, 136.10E).

This feature enabled the radar information to be used in direct support of Soviet polar maritime activities. Recognized as a major contributing factor in aviation accidents and incidents, weather contributes directly or indirectly to nearly 80 percent of fatal general aviation (small private aircraft) accidents.

This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. Comparison of echo structure and accumulated precipitation suggests that radar data assimilation is useful in improving the short-term forecast by capturing the location and orientation of the band of accumulated rainfall.

The envisioned capability of a millimeter wave radar system on GV is enhanced by coordination with microwave radiometer, in situ probes, and especially by the NCAR GV High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) which is also under construction. This fact gives an uncertain result for rainfall estimation and has damage of proper- ties by the incorrect forecast. Doppler weather radar can thus be used as a reliable sensor for quantifying bird densities aloft in an operational setting, which--when extended to multiple radars--enables the mapping and continuous monitoring of bird migration flyways.

Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In the next step were investigated the differences between radar and gauge rainfall accumulations by using four objective functions: mean bias between radar estimations and ground measurements, root mean square factor, and Spearman and Pearson correlations.

For example, information derived from those radars was used to plan rescue operations of distressed ships trapped in sea ice.

CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence.

The previous LLCC and FR were shown to be overly restrictive, potentially leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. With planned sensor developments in the late 80's and early 90's, a quantum jump will be made in our ability to fully exploit the potential of these sensors. We also found that users follows a rational perceiving-judging-feeling-and acting approach in processing probabilistic hazard information for tornado.

This growth includes weather gathering devices (sensors, satellites), models and forecasti Baselining current road weather information : final report.

During the increasing dissemination of renewable energy sources the potential and actual interference effects of wind turbine plants became obvious.

Observations of the marine environment from spaceborne side-looking real aperture radars. . .

Partly cloudy with a 30 percent chance of showers and thunderstorms.

Velasco-Forero, Carlos A.; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Cassiraga, Eduardo F.; Jaime Gmez-Hernndez, J. Quantitative estimation of rainfall fields has been a crucial objective from early studies of the hydrological applications of weather radar.

Operational and developmental wind-shear detection systems are briefly reviewed.

There were 91 GA pilots from the Midwest, Northeastern, and Southeastern United States who participated in a 2-h short course or a control activity. Privacy Policy of NOAA's National Weather Service - NOAA's National Weather, Safety Weather Radio Hazard Assmt StormReady / TsunamiReady Skywarn(tm) Education/Outreach Information , and National Weather Service information collection practices.

The axes of the billows were at right angles of the wind and wind shear both oriented east-north-east at their altitude. However, a cost-effective solution has eluded most general aviation pilots because of the high cost of onboard weather radar equipment. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety.

A few clouds.

However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. The United States Coast Guard is developing AIREYE, an all weather, day/night airborne surveillance system, for installation aboard future medium range surveillance aircraft. Marzano, F. S.; Marchiotto, S.; Barbieri, S.; Giuliani, G.; Textor, C.; Schneider, D. J.

Using Macromedia Dreamweaver and PHP, developed the integrated monitoring platform for the doppler weather SA-band radar which could monitor the real-time radar system running status and important performance indicators such as radar power,status parameters and others on Web page,and when the status is abnormal it will trigger the audio alarm. For the current event the operational weather radar rainfall product only estimated about 30% of the actual amount of precipitation as measured by rain gauges. The RIS has proven its ability to operate continuously in the adverse conditions often observed in the Northern Plains. For example, to feed hydrological models, mitigate the impact of severe storms at the ground using radar information in modern warning tools as well as aid the validation studies of satellite-based rain products. The term average is defined here to indicate the arithmetic mean of a parameter, as a function of altitude, determined from a large number of available observations taken either close to severe weather occurrence, or else more than 3 hours before it occurs. In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006).

Future strategic planning by air traffic control will result in circumnavigation of potential hazardous areas, reduction of load around efficiency hot spots by offering alternatives, increase of handling capacity, anticipation of avoidance manoeuvres and increase of awareness before dangerous areas are entered by aircraft. Understanding and interpreting weather information can be critical to the success of any winter snow and ice removal operation.

The comparisons performed between the DPR and the S-band radar are expected to provide a useful reference not only for algorithm developers but also the end users in hydrology, ecology, weather forecast service and so on.

Evaluation of Software Simulation of Road Weather Information System.

Radar is currently used for detecting and monitoring oil slicks on the sea surface.

Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Erickson, P. J.; Needles, M. The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of vodcasts (video podcasts) produced by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, MA). The incoherent approach assumes only dependence on the sixth moment of PSDF (radar reflectivity Z). It combines a horizontal line scan in azimuth with a linear motion in vertical direction for the second image dimension. Nearly monochromatic and out of phase vertical air motion oscillations exceeding 3 m s-1 with a period of 3 min 20 s were measured by the MUR above and below the cloud base. Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. Low 56F. The vertically pointing radars (such as the Micro Rain Radar, MRR) are great tool to investigate the vertical variability of rainfall and its characteristics and ultimately, to fill the gap between the ground level and the first available radar elevation.

Interpretations are illustrated mostly with Seasat synthetic aperture radar and shuttle-imaging-radar images. We found a clear preference for the probabilistic approach.

. Return signals from the target are processed and information about their location and velocity is extracted.

Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as 4mb ( 1mb) under all weather conditions.

Direct measurements of rainfall data are normally not available from a point next to or in the surroundings of the initiation area of the landslide. On 22 June 2014, a hailstorm in northern Colorado destroyed 102 out of 203 known nests within our research site. The training materials will focus on annotated radar imagery based on products available to the 45 WS. These textural features of outcrops and their associated debris will affect radar backscatter to varying degrees, and the multiple-wavelength capability of the JPL Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) system allows sampling of textures at three distinct scales. The statistics show the better agreement among S band A type (SA) radars, S band B type (SB) radars and PR, as well as poor performance of S band C type (SC) radars. Using these data, we have developed empirical models for relativistic electron flux at GEO and inner magnetosphere.

The basic idea of the object-based approach is to identify a small set of radar- and satellite derived descriptors which characterize the temporal development of precipitation systems which constitute the objects. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy.

As radar advances into the millimeter wave (MMW) regime, atmospheric effects such as attenuation and refraction become more pronounced than at traditional radar wavelengths.

This presentation will describe how SAR data from the Sentinel 1A/B satellites are processed and developed into products.

from a maximum variability of 10% for a return period of 2 years and a duration of 4 h to 30% for 50 years return period and 20 min duration). This enables the monitor to detect additional classes of DEM errors and to reduce the exposure time associated with integrity threats.

The paper demonstrates the use of adoption rate curves in product development and research planning to improve managerial decision processes and resource allocation. Data requirements of these future products are identified and quantified.

Dabbling ducks were the dominant taxa flying within the radar beam during the foraging flight period.

Chilson, Phillip B.; Bridge, Eli; Frick, Winifred F.; Chapman, Jason W.; Kelly, Jeffrey F. An international and interdisciplinary Radar Aeroecology Workshop was held at the National Weather Center on 56 March 2012 on the University of Oklahoma campus in Norman, OK, USA. Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P. A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida.

Furthermore, the vertical variability of DSD and integral rainfall parameters within the MRR bins (from ground to 1085 m each 35 m) has been investigated in order to provide, Weather models as virtual sensors to data-driven rainfall predictions in urban watersheds, Cozzi, Lorenzo; Galelli, Stefano; Pascal, Samuel Jolivet De Marc; Castelletti, Andrea. This idea leads to two research topics in signal processing: (1) signal modeling and parameter estimation, and (2) adaptive filtering in this particular signal environment. The machine learning based rainfall product is compared against the GPM standard products, NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM), Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor). High temperature around 84F. This combination of ensemble forecast and observation yields a consistent spatial and temporal evolution of the radar error field.

Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed.

This report is the first in a series on the use of weather information by Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) controllers and weather displays for the cockpit.

This presentation describes final test results for the Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center on flight testing of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES), VDL Mode 3, and Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data links as a medium for weather data exchange.

Finally, the corrected ARPS forecast and radar-based extrapolation were optimally merged by using a hyperbolic tangent weight scheme. Subsequently, the storms are simulated by using the WRF-ARW model at 1 km horizontal resolution based on 6 hourly analyses and boundary conditions of NCEP-FNL. The initial upgrade of the radar took place in late 2004 with WHNT-TV purchase and installation of a SIGMET (now Vaisala) Antenna Mounted Receiver (AMR), RVP8/RCP8 radar processor/antenna controller, new radome, and a new dual-polarimetric antenna feed. The overall objective of this research is to evaluate multipolarization airborne SAR data, multitemporal ERS-1 SAR data, and combinations of ERS-1 SAR and satellite VIR data for crop classification using non-conventional algorithms.

The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this, Radar Spectrum Engineering and Management (Ingenierie et gestion du spectre radar), geophysical monitoring of Earth resources from space, automotive safety , severe weather tracking, and surveillance for defence and security.

The NCDC Weather Radar Toolkit (WRT) loads Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) volume scan (S-band) data, known as Level-II, and derived products, known as Level-III, into an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant environment.

Blewett, D. T.; Coman, E. I.; Chabot, N. L.; Izenberg, N. R.; Harmon, J. K.; Neish, C. Images collected by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its three Mercury flybys cover nearly the entire surface of the planet that was not imaged by Mariner 10. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. Six of the stations do not have access to commercial power an Radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: Initial deployment of a transportable Doppler radar system for volcano-monitoring, The rapid detection of explosive volcanic eruptions and accurate determination of eruption-column altitude and ash-cloud movement are critical factors in the mitigation of volcanic risks to aviation and in the forecasting of ash fall on nearby communities. We have compared the gauge data to the surface volumetric rainfall accumulation of NEXRAD reflectivity field, (converting to rain rates using a 0.5 dB resolution smooth Z-R table). Ohio University is continuing to conduct research to improve its system for weather data dissemination to aircraft. Focusing on nesting grassland songbirds, we demonstrate a novel approach to estimate hail-induced mortality. Winds ESE at 10 to 20 mph. This paper first gives a heuristic description of the sensitivity of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar to vertical vegetation distributions and underlying surface topography. the extended boundary condition T-matrix (EBCM) method and discretize dipole approximation (DDA)) and given size distributions, and compared with observations of a C-band dual-polarization radar. Consistently lower bird densities are recorded in The Netherlands compared with sites in France and eastern Belgium, which reveals some of the spatial extent of the dominant Scandinavian flyway over continental Europe. The interest in improving short term forecasting is evident. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques.

However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. The preliminary results presented in the paper will compare simulated and observed reflectivity fields corresponding to horizontal and vertical cloud structures associated with midlatitude cyclone events.

Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology.

At the present the Department of Meteorology is in the process of buying Meteorological Radar Services as a result of a public procurement procedure.

Simulation of CloudSat reflectivity is performed by adopting the discrete-dipole parameterizations and databases provided in literature, and demonstrate an improved capability in simulating radar reflectivity at W-band versus Mie scattering, An industry perspective on the use of seasonal forecasts and weather information for evaluating sensitivities in traded commodity supply chains.

To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. DOT.

Here the impact time of radar data assimilation is related to characteristics of the meteorological environment. Integration of weather information in transportation management center operations : self-evaluation and planning guide.

Because of this, the FAA and NASA are working to develop new technologies to increase the system's capacity which enhancing safety.

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