which is not a phase of research writing

Protocol of research What is aprotocol of research?

Each represents a fundamentally different inquiry paradigm, and researcher actions are based on the underlying assumptions of each paradigm.

Here, one thing is to be noted that hypothesis is not needed in all researches.

It is a rational assumption on the possible cause(s) of the observed phenomenon.

To set up the boundaries of scientific problem is very important step in preparation of future research.

By co-operation both the high probability does exist that appropriate statistic method will be chosen and research result will be evaluated correctly.

Qualitative versus quantitative approaches (2008) HYPERLINK "http://www.drcath.net/toolkit/quantandqual.ppt 5" http://www.drcath.net/toolkit/quantandqual.ppt 5. Report a Violation, 7 Stages or Steps Involved in Marketing Research Process, 6 Stages involved in Marketing Research Process, Essay on Science: An Useful Essay on Science. The amount of time spent, however, varies from study to study.

For each population there are many possible selected samples. 19.

5th World Congress of Action Learning, Action Research and Process Management, University of Ballarat, Victoria, pp. ( Outcome measures/objectives. It is a process in which thinking is dominant. HYPERLINK "http://www.lifehack.org/articles/communicatio ' * M X ~ = > ? NC State University, 2004 14.

If you are using any equipment it should be clearly described. (2006) this phase of research involves activities with astrong conceptual element.

You will need to think about these limitations before you start your research/experiment so you can find a location in advance that will meet your needs. question ( Setting.

There is consent that it should be aperson(s): with large and high quality of knowledge in the respective field, with high creativity, able to think independently, large knowledge in culture and history, with ability to persist in research despite of serious problems, with non-conventional thinking, able to doubt on recent valid truth (dogmas), able to formulate and publicly present his/her own doubts, with appropriate dose of curiosity, able to resist to fashionable hypotheses and theories, able to preserve independent thinking in the sphere of strong scientific and/or political personalities, with high grade of perseverance in looking for scientific problem and its definition, able to look at scientific problem from different points of view, possessing excellent memory and appropriate dose of emotionality. The purpose of a literature review is than to offer an overview of significant literature published on atopic (Concordia University Libraries, 2006).

Than he/she can re-use exactly the same methods in own research. 2. If you are working with human or animal subjects, you may need a location that is quiet.

Searching and review the literature relating to the regarding research problem and development a framework It is regular rule that research projects begins with conducting literature, which means to identify related research, to set the current research project within a conceptual and theoretical context.

Author(s) of research project should repeatedly check individual phases and steps of research project.

Only way how to obtain such information is research in which are used scientific methods and it is done by qualified and experienced scientists. This can make it easier to work with. Creation of good virtual model of the future research will save the time, money and decrease probability of stressful situations during running research.

Unforseen problem can arise in the course of aproject. It can be, e.g. Another chapter in this manual is devoted to explanation of the content of this phase. First control mechanism is autocontrol. Hypothesis is a source of questions focused to the core of the research problem.

did anybody else solve the same or similar problem in the past? Phase of construction of research design The aim of this phase of research is to prepare general plan of real research. East of England Research and Development Support Unit, Norfolk and Suffolk. They can also be used to gain new perspectives on things about which much is already known, or to gain more in-depth information that may be difficult to convey quantitatively.

It answers the questionswhat, how, when/where, and why about the facts to be collected for the study. It is said that mere collection of facts is no science. Content Guidelines 2. h) Determination of other condition necessary for success of research Research funding is the most important condition for researcher.

Writing and Authoring Tools.

It is desirable to create strong hypothesis.

141- 152. This method should be described in full details, its usage clearly justified, and obtained results should undergo to critic analysis. g) Select design for data analysis In this step researcher should consult with specialist on statistics. Methodology for Health-care Professionals, Second Edition 2006, ISBN 0 7021 6680 4, Juta and Co (Pty) Ltd books.google.sk/books?isbn=0702166804 8.

You have to be aware where will you conduct your experiment. Discovery of good scientific problem can't be planned. This is important mainly: - when on the same research participate more researchers from the same research team - when the respective research is conducted at more laboratories or in different hospitals in one or more countries (multicentre studies) - that researchers are well informed on what parameters should be observed and recorded - to stress that terminology of recorded parameters have to be well defined and all researchers should understand their meaning Key elements of the experimental procedure If you use experiment as a method in your research than you should be familiar with its key elements. 3. Prohibited Content 3.

Research problems tend to be framed as open-ended questions that will support discovery of new information. At the beginning the scientific problem is usually not well defined.

On the above mentioned steps depends also the importance of the results which will be obtained by solving the problem, and how these results will influence branches of science, the science as whole and whole society.

The researcher normally collects the data according to the pre-established plan, and collects actual information, that is data, usage the instrument that has been developed and tested in the pilot study (Brink at al, 2006). Content Filtrations 6.

Another questions related to experiment should be taken into account, e.g.

Hypotheses are more specific predictions about the nature and direction of the relationship between two variables. But in other guidelines you can find another order of phases and steps. Some researches develop hypotheses as the end results of a preliminary inquiry for further testing.

Basic Steps in the Research Process.

Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 18. Some mistakes can't be eliminated, so, it will be necessary to take them into account when the results will be interpreted.

Development of the theoretical construction of the future research Before the real research will start it is necessary to create its theoretical construction (abstract construction, virtual model). Than data are organised in an orderly, coherent fashion so that he/she can discern patterns and relationships. The main aim of this step is thinking on the content of presumed research, on its timing (date of beginning, duration of individual stages, duration whole research, date of supposed finish), on its structure (division to stages, phases), on conditions which should be created for successful run of research (persons, money, material, place).

One of the requirements is to compare different authors views on an issue and in the same time put those with similar conclusions in groups, note the disagreement areas and conclude by summarising what the literature says. The measurement outcomes used to support or reject the hypotheses can be stated and separated into primary and secondary outcomes. For example, describe the study population, including a rationale of why they were chosen. description and size of all experimental/research and control groups, as applicable a step-by-step list of everything you must do to curry out your research. The basic procedure, as outlined above, is the same for all scientific researches or inquiries. For example, Those researchers who utilize an online grant writing tutorial will have higher priority scores on their next grant application than those who do not. Such hypothesis can be than verified or phalsified. To fulfil this aim one have to: - think about possible causes of observed new, up to now unknown phenomenon, create of hypothesis, think on whether defined scientific problem is solvable, think about methods suitable for solving the defined scientific problem. ( Interventions (if applicable). Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantitative_property" \o "Quantitative property" quantitative properties and HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenomena" \o "Phenomena" phenomena and their HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causality" \o "Causality" relationships. Only the tools and techniques may vary according to the problem under study.

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So, dissemination means process when results of the research are presented or published as: final research report from research project lectures and/or posters at the congresses and conferences papers in journals using the result in clinical practice It is very important to know where is suitable to present your research results! Think about all the steps that you will need to go through to complete your research, and record exactly what will need to be done in each step the research procedure must tell how you will change your one and only independent variable and how you will measure that change the research procedure must explain how you will measure the resulting change in the dependent variable(s) if applicable, the research procedure should explain how the controlled variables will be maintained at a constant value the research procedure should specify how many times you intend to repeat your research (or its parts), so that you can verify that your results are really reproducible a good research procedure enables someone else to duplicate your experiment/clinical study/other type of research, exactly!

Resource requirements: The resource implications to the host organisation and any other involved departments should be defined in this section. In addition you must outline the timetable/schedule of the research and all costs.

There are several considerations when deciding to adopt a qualitative research methodology. Dissemination and outcome: How will the studys findings be made available?

From another point of view we can distinguish physiological, biochemical, genetic, mathematical, physical, invasive, and non-invasive and other types of research methods. The aims of literature review are to get an insight and to get a view work of others, and there are some requirements needed to be fulfilled to be an effective review analyser. This will be the foundation of your application.

You will need to think about these limitations before you start your experiment so you can find a location in advance that will meet your needs. There is alot of uncertainties and only small amount of certainties at the beginning. What study design is most appropriate to answer your particular research?

A research design is a detailed plan or a strategy of conducting research.

In many studies empirical phase is the most time-consuming part of the investigation.

( what do the findings mean for others?

Designing the research ensures against its failure. Thus, the activities include thinking, rethinking, theorising, making decision, and reviewing ideas with colleagues, research partners or mentors/supervisors. &. f) Pilot study The research is ready for implement the plan. Any gaps in the evidence should be identified as should the potential value of furthering knowledge in this field, such as theoretical or clinical applications of the study outcomes. And when writing you should compare and show relationships between the work already done by for example another researcher and compare it with another research, and see differences and decide who is most convincing.

Image Guidelines 5.

So, using other words, the aim of this step is to find the current information related to the recognized research problem. (d) Sample design.

Selection of technology It is necessary to define/to grow serious what kind of devices have to be used, what technical parameters they should have if we would like to be sure that recorded/gathering parameters are really objective and exact. G Concordia University Libraries, 2006 13. They aim to discover under the surface layer of diversity of these events, a thread of uniformity.

How the really important scientific problem can be discovered and defined?

It may also be useful to include consent forms and participant information in appendices. graphs, tables, figures Study administration and ethical issues: ( outline the methods by which the patient/subjects interests will be safeguarded. ABC'S of Writing Process.

Phase of conception is the first phase of original research. Precisely it was expressed by A. Einstein (paraphrase): If I have one hour for solving the problem on which my life depends, than I will devote 40 minutes to study the problem, 15 minutes to analyse the ways how to solve it, and only 5 minutes to solve it. It should: give insight into a research question, be testable and measurable by the proposed experiments, spring logically from the experience of the staff Normally, no more than three primary hypotheses should be proposed for a research study. 9.

Advice for students: Ten steps toward better research.

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Their view will change quickly when they are involved in research (even very simple). http://www.cvc.sunusb.edu/300/lectures/proposal.pdf 4.

(2006) the data collected in the empirical phase are not reported in rawform. it seems suitable if we are able to define key elements of the respective research procedure. Olin and Uris Library, Cornell University Library, Ithaca NY.

Write down the problems that you find.

Effective project planning and evaluation in biomedical research.


Frequently, those phases/steps can have different names, e.g. Supervision: Where applicable, the protocol should name the individual(s) who will supervise the research project and the intended arrangements for the supervision.

The Research Assistant, 2003 15.


In: Action Learning, Action Research and Process Management, Theory, Practice Praxis.

II. The method of the data analysis should also be specified and may include the following points: ( method of data entry ( plan of analysis, including assumptions of analysis ( data analysis package ( presentation of demographic and outcome data summaries ( planned presentation of the data, i.e.

Disclaimer 9. A research question is a statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied. In: HYPERLINK "http://www.psy.herts.ac.uk/hrdsu/docs/Writing- research- protocol.doc" http://www.psy.herts.ac.uk/hrdsu/docs/Writing- research- protocol.doc.


Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 17. If necessary some adaptation/modification in re-used method can be done but it should be described precisely. As asecond form of control mechanism is recommended peer-review done by co-workers from the same lab, another labs or external expert. (Brink et al., 2006) V. Disseminative phase The job is not completed, however, until the researcher communicates the result of the study to others who may find it useful.

This step can find and eliminate conceptual, formal and technological weak places in the project.


These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research, but also as a source of merit.

And how your work already adds to research carried out.

HYPERLINK "http://www.scribd.com/doc/1016595/" http://www.scribd.com/doc/1016595/ 6.


As showed above research is composed of a certain phases and steps. They must be summarised and subjected to various types of analysis and interpretation. As it is written by Brink et al. In this process can be helpful if researcher has convincing information on usefulness of the chosen methods in previous similar research done by other researcher.

It is important that the investigator carefully and completely defines the population before collecting the sample, including a description of the members to be included (Easton and McColl, www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps//basic_definitions.html) Selection of research methods Researchers have long debated the relative value of qualitative and quantitative inquiry ( HYPERLINK "http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v9n1/hoepfl.html" \l "patton#patton" Patton, 1990). Patton, M. Q.

Edwards S, Bruce C. Reflective Internet Searching, an Action Research Model. The consideration on possible cause(s) of the phenomenon is formulated. Research Europe, 2007. It guides the researcher in the selection of pertinent facts needed to explain the problem at hand. Cambridge Rindge and Latin School CRLS Research Guide, HYPERLINK "http://crlsresearchguide.org" http://crlsresearchguide.org 20.

Plagiarism Prevention 4.

Wikipedia, 2009 10.

Not to be confused with a book review, a literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources (e.g.

Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques.

Action Research Unit, Griffith University. In order to make any generalisations about a population, a sample, that is meant to be representative of the population - selected sample, is often studied.

Scientists are not concerned with isolated phenomena or events. If animals are planned to be a research object than inclusion and exclusion criteria should be defined first, too, e.g. In.

Privacy Policy 8. f Such questions can come from many different sources: from lectures or textbooks, from an experiment you have just made (that raised another questions), from articles youve read in scientific journals or even newspapers and magazines.

It is important to clearly state what your problem is to avoid any confusion later. Copyright 10. Interpretation reports to the researcher's act of drawing conclusions and making sense of the results. Taking into account different guidelines one can distinguishes different number of phases/steps in research process.

Cambridge Rindge and Latin School CRLS Research Guide, HYPERLINK "http://crlsresearchguide.org" http://crlsresearchguide.org ; Olin Levi Warner Research helping the torch of knowledge. Step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher (Wikipedia, 2009). But we have to realise that research process can never completely verify or phalsify the studied hypothesis, it can be done with certain probability, only. Cited in. Literature 1. Generally, research is understood as systematic, controlled, empiric and critical investigation of hypothetic statements on supposed relationships among phenomenon. The following five phases outline a simple and effective strategy for conducting effective research: I. classification of data according characteristic properties/features b) correlation: looking for relationships among the two or more recorded data (parameters) When we are looking for possible correlations our attention should be focused to: if qualitative and quantitative correlations do exist find simple correlation between two parameters find complex correlation among many parameter if there is linear correlation manifested as straight line if there is non-linear correlation manifested as variously shaped curve if there is direct correlation positive if there is indirect correlation negative comparison: comparison of the result obtained in our research with data obtained in similar research done by other researchers induction looking for generalised conclusion on the base of limited amount of results In order to be meaningful, the results obtained from data analysis require interpretation.

These days, much of this work is done by computers.

It is generally accepted that reliable information on human health state are necessary for prevention of disease development and disease treatment.

Scientific problem: Pre Lab SelfGuideNC State University, 2004, www.ncsu.edu/labwrite 2. Free science fair project ideas; Answers and tools for serious students: Experimental procedure.

in 2008 yr discovery of papiloma virus was done, in 1962 it was discovery of DNA structure, in 2009 it was discovered structure of ribosome and function of telomere and enzyme telomerase. Such discoveries are awarded, too but by another type of prizes.

Here they are: description and size of all experimental and control groups, as applicable a step-by-step list of everything you must do to perform your experiment. Strauss, A, Corbin, J.

Strauss and Corbin ( HYPERLINK "http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v9n1/hoepfl.html" \l "strauss#strauss" 1990) claim that qualitative methods can be used to better understand any phenomenon about which little is yet known. Introduction to Research Design and Statistics: Steps in the Research Process. To identify a scientific problem, than, you can find sources that relate to your topic and look to see what problems are raised in your search.

All steps are settled on time axis.

discovery of new important law in scientific branch or introduction of new discoveries to medical practice.

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