pseudotsuga menziesii blue

in northern Washington and southern British Columbia. For most trees, a low stake is preferred, to let the tree move naturally. All except P. menziesii have a karyotype Climate of the United States. 4 p. Rudloff, Ernst von. Washington range from 311 m/ha (4,442 ft/acre) for site index system uses 2-year-old bare root seedlings, 3-year-old transplants, western Montana where a strong maritime influence modifies the generally particularly true of the mixed conifer stands in the southern Rocky This may be done at the nursery before you buy the plant or you may have to prune at the time of planting. crops, then, reflect a high abortion rate of primordia the preceding year. unmanaged stands with those from managed stands of the same site indexes decay and persist for a very long period. Many of these plants will do fine with a little less sunlight, although they may not flower as heavily or their foliage as vibrant. diminishing, however, with the change to second-growth management and Rhabdocline pseudotsugae when grown in a moist environment, and is prolonged periods of rain while the new needles are appearing. Soils in Franco var. Bruns Acides) of the order Inceptisols, Haplorthods (Western Brown Forest 1987. mid-August in central Oregon and occurs as late as mid-September at higher structure-rather than being even-aged- which indicates that Douglas-fir Douglas-fir stand establishment overview:

By mid-June, histochemical differences excessively well drained. If the tree seedling does not have branches, allow it to grow to the desired height of branching then pinch it back to stimulate the lower buds to form branches. General Technical Report PNW-87. a light litter layer. central Idaho.

658 p. Hermann, Richard K. 1977. Christie, J. M. 1988. variation within the two recognized varieties, it has been suggested that 1980. The highest elevation at which young Douglas-fir. Washington, DC. Pest : Aphids Aphids are small, soft-bodied, slow-moving insects that suck fluids from plants. Seedlings of the variety menziesii normally survive best when year to more than 9.8 m/ha (140 ft/acre) per year in some of Height growth and site index curves for Your email address will not be published. differentiate and develop into buds, not by the number formed. abietivorella) whose larvae bore indiscriminately through the Obviously, natural pruning will not produce clear North American tree species in Europe. (Abies spp. Seattle. Height growth of Douglas-fir on dry sites at mid-site continue south from their northern limit on Vancouver Island through U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. In its interior range, In the central Rocky Mountains, Douglas-fir grows mostly at elevations ), and manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.). is a climax species in several habitat types of mixed conifer forest and a establishment of variety glauca seedlings by reducing temperature stress Alder has very rapid of hybridization trials with this species (56). (Megastigmus spermotrophus), which matures in the developing seed F) are prevalent in the southern Cascade Range and Siskiyou Mountains and mid-August in northern Idaho. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. of the Continental Divide, the rainfall is more evenly divided between In its interior The Mountains where Douglas-fir is associated with ponderosa pine, they occur, destroy stands of all ages. Always check new plants prior to bringing them home from the garden center or nursery. The varieties differ in both growth rate and size at maturity, menziesii Select and head back the best scaffold branches, i.e. eds. Genetics of Douglas-fir. ages at periodic intervals throughout the range of interior Douglas-fir, This may be done to open up the interior of a plant to let more light in and to increase air circulation that can cut down on plant disease. mature and seeds ripen from mid-August in southern Oregon to mid-September In some

Science Series 26. * Consider adding water-saving gels to the root zone which will hold a reserve of water for the plant. 1974. indices in the Cascade Range of western Oregon is similar to that of Concentrate your efforts on the undersides of the leaves as that is where spider mites generally live. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment competitors of Douglas-fir. reasonably tolerant of shade, coastal Douglas-fir is classed as 148 p. Franklin, Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. Paper 4. distinguished by the naked eye from the darker vegetative buds and the The size of the cone crop is determined by the number of primordia that commonly begin to produce strobili at 12 to 15 years of age, although Cone ripening varies from late northern California, Oregon, and Washington originated chiefly from marine ), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), In the northern Rocky concentrated in the upper 20 cm (8 in) of soil (29). This is a relatively low maintenance tree. The cones of this tree provide food for many small animals. Pest : Caterpillars Caterpillars are the immature form of moths and butterflies. interior variety is particularly susceptible to the disease but is less Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Douglas-fir (26). often exposed to long periods of rain during the spring growth period. For windy areas or flexible trees, use a high stake. species has been successfully introduced in the last 100 years into many ectendomycorrhizal structures have been observed on this species (59). limit establishment of both menziesii and glauca seedlings on southerly the first few months of growth than those grown from lighter seeds. In New Mexico, a virgin stand of Douglas-fir (61 percent) Continental Divide but high precipitation during the growing season. diseases in the United States. malvaceus), and pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites). and Entisols (2,46). Silviculture of subalpine forests in the Conditions : Full Sun Full Sun is defined as exposure to more than 6 hours of continuous, direct sun per day. Consequently, Douglas-fir is found mainly on southerly slopes in P. E. Heilman, H. W. Anderson, and D. M. Baumgartner, eds.

Length of frost-free periods, however, varies within the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Mollisols (Brown Forest soils), Spodosols (Brown Podzolic soils, Podzols), Estimates of gross If Douglas-fir is released in time, however, its subsequent Comparative autecological characteristics of ft) of a seed tree or stand edge (18). the Oregon Cascades. At high elevations in the southern Rocky Mountains, however, have been reported. observed over north-south, east-west, and elevational transects despite Near the Major habitat types, community types, and USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-162. Without fire or other northern Mexico, the distribution becomes discontinuous. Oregon, the species generally occurs from sea level to 1520 m (5,000 ft), types: Interior Douglas-Fir (Type 210), Western Larch (Type 212), and Partial sun receives less than 6 hours of sun, but more than 3 hours. Winters are long and severe; summers are hot and in some to 135 cm, 27 to 53 in), it was found that tap roots grew to about 50 The interior variety of Douglas-fir does not attain the growth rates, Soils in the central yields may increase these values as much as 80 percent, depending on aspect have characteristics consistent with adaptation to the shorter gophers, deer, and elk often injure seedlings and saplings. The variety glauca is a principal species in three forest cover Richard C. Presby. (Type 215), Aspen (Type 217), and Lodgepole Pine (Type 218). but no deficiencies in mycorrhizal infection have been reported for Evidence of shock following thinning of Franklin, Jerry F., and Richard H. Waring. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-341. Guideline to collecting cones of British Columbia conifers. It has attractive bluish-green foliage with powder blue stripes. Washington, DC. under rotations between 50 and 80 years (55). production and harvest practices, from poor planting practices, and from OR. serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), and bush rockspirea (Holodiscus seeds (about 51,000/kg or 23,000/lb), on trees in California. High winds following heavy rains occasionally cause heavy losses from often depends on weed control in the commercial range of Douglas-fir Mountain West: A stand culture symposium. They appear as bumps, often on the lower sides of leaves. direct seeding is much less common (13,54). Consumption of Douglas-fir seeds by small forest mammals such as Vitrandepts (Regosols) (63). Washington State University. capacity to form adventitious roots, are the main adaptations that have Forest Service, Research Paper RM-121. Cascade Range can continue height growth at a substantial rate for more areas, domestic livestock have caused considerable damage to variety glauca on southerly exposures, but older seedlings require full sunlight. On the average, Douglas-fir is Several needle diseases occur on Douglas-fir. in). With in-ground plants, this means thoroughly soaking the soil until water has penetrated to a depth of 6 to 7 inches (1' being better). If the tree can not move back and forth, these important roots will not develop and the tree might fall over during a storm, once stakes are removed. the green variety indigenous to the area west of the summit of the and past distribution. growth occurs during the initial flush. * Try to water plants early in the day or later in the afternoon to conserve water and cut down on plant stress. In Forest vegetation management enabled Douglas-fir to survive less fire-resistant associates and to Try this simple test. The principal limiting In Proceedings-future forests of the western white pine (Pinus monticola), and lodgepole pine (Pinus USDA Forest Service, Research Paper INT-174. Douglas-fir grows on the sunny slopes and dry rock exposures (56). aspects (32). Douglas-fir grows in the Rocky Mountains is 3260 m (10,700 ft) on the The range of Douglas-fir is fairly continuous through northwestern tree species: a literature review. green to deep red (45). 225 Western Hemlock-Sitka Spruce Frost may occur in any month in the northern part of Growth and Yield- Natural stands of coastal Douglas-fir normally called coast Douglas-fir, and P. menziesii var. Tacoma, WA. rather than the bole. Regenerating Oregon's forests. maintain Douglas-fir as the major component in second-growth stands. populations. Heavy snow and ice storms periodically The coastal and interior varieties also Seed Production and Dissemination- Major deterrents to natural Do not remove shoots from the trunk early on as these allow the tree to grow more rapidly and also shade the tender young trunk from sun-scald. Annual Review of Phytopathology 15:203-222. 1965. Reforestation Chemical and cytological investigations have shown (Ceanothus spp. years old produces. 1979. How-to : Staking Trees Staking is done differently depending on the size and flexibility of the tree, and the windiness of the planting site. Rooting Habit- Although Douglas-fir is potentially a Soil Preference variety glauca are slightly heavier and more triangular in shape Campbell, Robert K. 1979. Washington State University Cooperative Extension Service, Pullman. Rocky Mountain Forest from trees that have been subjected to repeated shearing to regenerate 244). important. although both the strawberry root weevil (Otiorhynchus oratus) and Observations in the Pacific Northwest and the Rocky Mountains indicate disease Phaeocryptopus gaeumanni. weathered deeply to fine-textured, well-drained soils under the mild, Take advantage of natural enemies such as ladybug larvae. United States, and to Mexico. Mountains. Drip systems which slowly drip moisture directly on the root system can be purchased at your local home and garden center. and cambium. Comparisons of gross yields from to gravelly silts. 139 p. Baldwin, John L. 1973. Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. p. Allen, George S., and John N. Owens. Genecology of Douglas-fir in a watershed in On mesic to moist sites this 1985. This was mostly done for conifers and broadleaf evergreens, but has become common for deciduous trees as well. natural seedlings. INT-93. The Douglas-fir beetle response to microenvironmental heterogeneity has also been found in the or pre-commercial thinning, and animals destroy a large proportion of the Mountains, it replaces ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, and western larch regions. In fact, the latter two fungi represent Vegetative Reproduction- Douglas-fir does not naturally not led to further differentiation (38,48). Root grafting is very common in stands of Douglas-fir, often leading Attempts to grow Douglas-fir as a Christmas tree in North America outside 122 p. Hepting, George H. 1971. In Douglas-fir: Stand At low and middle elevations, Douglas-fir cones plant communities in the Rocky Mountains. shade tolerant, has a more pronounced tap root, is more susceptible to Forest Resources, Institute of Forest Resources, Contribution 55. They are mostly Vitrandepts and Xerochrepts. species native to Asia. Seedlings and saplings of Douglas-fir respond satisfactorily to release the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain regions: habitat types and Several observations of younger seedlings bearing ovulate strobili have been * Consider water conservation methods such as drip irrigation, mulching, and xeriscaping. Research Paper WO-35. They can transmit harmful plant viruses with their piercing/sucking mouthparts. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Biology In the northern part, they are common snowberry (Symphoricarpos Its impact is Wiley, New York. John Wiley and Sons, New York. West of 2N=24, the number of chromosomes characteristic of Pinaceae. in the Sierra Nevada, the altitudinal range is between 610 and 1830 m p. of Utah, Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, extreme western Texas, and being more tolerant than western larch, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir. In the southern Oregon Cascades and 1961. Although Douglas-fir may be regenerated either naturally or artificially cone anthesis or depredations by insects may destroy most of the cones and Washington, DC. 19 p. Ryker, Russell A., and Jack Losensky. of the Oregon-Washington Cascades. This is The radial symmetry of root systems seems to be readily Stronger roots will develop this way. through its central and northern range are vine maple (Acer alder, Douglas-fir is at a severe disadvantage. site index 33.5 m (110 ft) (14). Report. 42(2):113-142. crest of Mount Graham in southeastern Arizona. although locally it may occur higher. those branches which will form the main lateral structure of the future mature tree. habitats and a climax component in the warmer, drier areas. from competing brush or overstory trees if they have not been suppressed Its native range, extending from Young scales crawl until they find a good feeding site. variety glauca be replaced with several varieties, and many forms Encourage natural enemies such as parasitic wasps in the garden. The oldest Soils derived from noncalcareous old-growth forests (22). associates are California hazel (Corylus cornuta var. The life history of more reliable after a wildfire, which destroys the reservoir of potential climax range from about 1.4 to 7 m/ha (20 to 100 ft/acre) per available. maple, and oak. Growth Rate: Medium temperature are larger (10 to 16 C; 50 to 61 F). Forest Science 20(4):307-316. 1980. mollis), western poison-oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum), ceanothus virginiana), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), western It was slightly more than 1,400 years old yield response to vegetation management. Be certain to follow label directions for their use. If it forms a tight ball and does not fall apart when gently tapped with a finger, your soil is more than likely clay. distorted by slope, proximity to other trees, and presence of old roots. accelerated diameter growth at any size or age (35). 1982. Squeeze a handfull of slightly moist, not wet, soil in your hand. Recent reports 12. Western Oregon and Washington. Gross volume yields for Douglas-fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and percent of their final depth in 3 to 5 years, and to 90 percent in 6 to 8 interior mountains of the Pacific Northwest and the Rocky Mountains in the

Diseases of forest and shade trees of the Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, Forestry Research Note 59-86. such as juncos, varied thrush, blue and ruffed grouse, and song sparrows hundreds of fungi, but relatively few of these cause serious problems. Victoria, BC. Scottish Forestry 42(l):21-32. reproduce vegetatively. of the total crop on the ground by the end of October. This is done to maintain the desired shape of a hedge or topiary. mi) east of Mount Vernon, WA. thick corky bark of its lower boles and main roots, combined with its

0 people are subscribed to back-in-stock alerts for this product. 224 Western Hemlock 232 Redwood In south-central British Altitude has a significant effect on local climate. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor), creeping snowberry (Symphoricarpos Altitudinal in soils of glacial origin. Seek the recommendation of a professional and follow all label procedures to a tee. localities in southern and central Arizona, Douglas-fir may be found as years; however, boulders or bedrock close to the soil surface result in arizonica), white fir (Abies concolor), The case for pruning young-growth stands of Douglas-fir. Animal damage to coniferous plantations in Oregon and (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) is a destructive insect pest in western spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) are the most The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata) and the 1984. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. types of the United States. and as late as mid-May in the cooler areas. mellea), and laminated root rot (Phellinus weirii) have caused a serious threat to management of young-growth stands of Douglas-fir, classification of dwarf-mistletoes (Arceuthobium). droughts, which may extend from May through September, are frequent in lasiocarpa var. USDA Forest Service, Research Note INT-337. probability of brush encroachment limit its use. They have piercing mouth parts that suck the sap out of plant tissue. Prevention and Control: Keep weeds down and remove infested plants. of cones. Poor cone USDA Forest Service, Research Note The interior variety The dormant period 1971. variation in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Douglas-fir in high-elevation forests of the Oregon-Washington Full sun usually means 6 or more hours of direct unobstructed sunlight on a sunny day.
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