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Limitation: the table must have a primary key, it is used to set the WHERE clause to update the Oid column after the large object import. The perl script says nothing and the output file is empty: the user lacks permission to extract something from the database. PostgreSQL version below 9.x do not support IF EXISTS in DDL statements. You may want to fully disable this feature because you will lose all data from unlogged tables in case of a PostgreSQL crash. Default is to save all data in the OUTPUT file. Note that the value can always modified by the user so you can not have exactly a constant. Since Ora2Pg v8.1 there's three new export types: Here is an example of the SHOW_COLUMN output: Those extraction keywords are use to only display the requested information and exit. If you want to preserve Oracle primary and unique key names set this option to 1. Use btree_gin extension to create bitmap like index with pg >= 9.4 You will need to create the extension by yourself: create extension btree_gin; Default is to create GIN index, when disabled, a btree index will be created. Support for include a DELETE FROM WHERE clause filter before importing data and perform a delete of some lines instead of truncating tables. If, for any reason you want Ora2Pg to respect the DATA_TYPE you have set for identity column then disable this directive. If the variable is a constant or have a default value assigned at declaration, Ora2Pg will create a file global_variables.conf with the definition to include in the postgresql.conf file so that their values will already be set at database connection.

Note that enabling this directive will force PLSQL_PGSQL activation. A quick benchmark with 30120 rows with different size of BLOB (200x5Mb, 19800x212k, 10000x942K, 100x17Mb, 20x156Mb), with DATA_LIMIT=100, LONGREADLEN=170Mb and a total table size of 20GB gives: In conclusion it can be more than 10 time faster with LOB_CHUNK_SIZE set to 4Mb. If set to 1 it disables alter of sequences on all tables during COPY or INSERT export mode. This can be used with the most of export types: TABLE, TRIGGER, PROCEDURE, VIEW, FUNCTION or PACKAGE, etc. All SCN per tables are written to a file name TABLES_SCN.log. If you're experiencing any problem in data type schema conversion with this directive you can take full control of the correspondence between Oracle and PostgreSQL types to redefine data type translation used in Ora2pg. The 'VALID' or 'INVALID' status applies to functions, procedures, packages and user defined types. If you have changed the value of NLS_LANG you might have to change the encoding of the PostgreSQL client. Allow escaping of column name using Oracle reserved words. Ora2Pg fully export Spatial object from Oracle database. If you want to use functions defined in the Orafce library and prevent Ora2Pg to translate call to these functions, enable this directive. Depending of the size of most BLOB you may want to adjust the value here. Default is to not scan this table and to never look for queries. Note that if you have modified the table name with REPLACE_TABLES and/or the column's name, you need to use the name of the original table and/or column. If you prefer to load export 'on the fly', the perl module DBD::Pg is required. Install through CPAN manually if the above doesn't work: Installing DBD::Oracle require that the three Oracle packages: instant-client, SDK and SQLplus are installed as well as the libaio1 library.

See for a sample report. This directive, enabled by default, allow to export Oracle's External Tables as file_fdw foreign tables. Exporting BLOB takes time, in some circumstances you may want to export all data except the BLOB columns. Note that when a RAW(16) and RAW(32) columns is found or that the RAW column has "SYS_GUID()" as default value Ora2Pg will automatically translate the type of the column into uuid which might be the right translation in most of the case. It is also possible to specify the number of parallel queries used to extract data from the Oracle with the -J command line option as follow: This is only possible if you have defined the technical key to used to split the query between cores in the DEFINED_PKEY configuration directive. After setting ORACLE_HOME and LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables as root user, install DBD::Oracle. | SQL You might also execute manually a VACUUM FULL on the table to remove the bloat created by the table update. The perl script ora2pg dump an ORA-XXX error, that mean that your DSN or login information are wrong, check the error and your settings and try again. The function is dropped at the end of the export. If you want to use COPY or have huge size BLOB ( > 1GB) than can not be imported using lo_from_bytea() you can add option --lo_import to the ora2pg command. This directive is used to disable triggers on all tables in COPY or INSERT export modes. It will also create a Shell script to import the BLOB files into the database using psql command \lo_import and to update the table Oid column to the returned large object Oid. I do not recommend to enable this unless you will always have to double-quote object names on all your SQL scripts. Some Oracle user defined types are just array of a native type, in this case you may want to transform this column in simple array of a PostgreSQL native type. | Angular This is usable only during the corresponding export type, the package body export has a special behavior. Rows will be frozen only if the table being loaded has been created or truncated in the current sub-transaction. You can use this directive to change the default value 49. this is only relevant if you have user defined type with a column timestamp. For example: The parallel query that will be used supposing that -J or ORACLE_COPIES is set to 8: where N is the current process forked starting from 0. If the above configuration directive is not enough to validate your PL/SQL code enable this configuration directive to allow export of all PL/SQL code even if it is marked as invalid. By default Ora2Pg will extract the 10000 first rows from both side, you can change this value using directive DATA_VALIDATION_ROWS. Set the comma separated list of username that must be used to filter queries from the DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL table. Of course this file must be imported after data import otherwise sequence will be kept to start value. The value consist in a space-separated list of table name with a set of column between parenthesis as follow: This will only extract columns 'id' and 'dossier' from table T_TEST1 and columns 'id' and 'fichier' from the T_TEST2 table. Allow object constraints to be saved in a separate file during schema export. This is usable only during INSERT or COPY export type. In this case, Ora2Pg will add the column as follow: ALTER TABLE t_document ADD COLUMN tsv_title tsvector; Then update the column to compute FTS vectors if data have been loaded before UPDATE t_document SET tsv_title = to_tsvector('pg_catalog.french', coalesce(title,'')); To automatically update the column when a modification in the title column appears, Ora2Pg adds the following trigger: When the Oracle text index is defined over multiple column, Ora2Pg will use setweight() to set a weight in the order of the column declaration. The reports/ directory will contains the html reports with the migration cost assessment. Doesn't work under Windows Operating System, it is simply disabled. If you want Ora2Pg to remove any timezone information into the format part of the TO_CHAR() function, enable this directive. By default Ora2Pg is looking at indexes to see the spatial constraint type and dimensions defined under Oracle. Ora2Pg will create an helper function over unaccent() and creates the pg_trgm indexes using this function.

if they do not correspond to the default values for libpq. This function is only created if Ora2Pg found a table with a BFILE column and that the destination type is bytea (the default). By default Ora2Pg imports Oracle BLOB as bytea, the destination column is created using the bytea data type. You can use the ALLOW and EXCLUDE directive in addition to filter other objects to export. Set it to 0 to use extract method a la CLOB. Enable it if you are exporting to GreenPlum PostgreSQL database. These DELETE clauses might be useful with regular "updates". And a number from 1 up to 5 to give you a technical difficulty level. With the TABLESPACE export, it is used to write "ALTER INDEX TABLESPACE " into a separate file named TBSP_INDEXES_OUTPUT that can be loaded at end of the migration after the indexes creation to move the indexes. Allow data export to be saved in one file per table/view. Ex: 9.6 or 13 Default is current major version at time of a new release. This directive did not control the Oracle database connection or unless it purely disables the use of any Oracle database by accepting a file as argument. Values set in command line options will override values from the configuration file. When enabled, export views with CHECK OPTION. Allow functions, procedures and triggers to be saved in one file per object. If you want to override those security privileges for all functions and use SECURITY DEFINER instead, enable this directive. Disabling the directive with value 0 will prevent Ora2Pg to add those keywords in all generated statements. To append these users to the schema exclusion list, just set the SYSUSERS configuration directive to a comma-separated list of system user to exclude. Set the PostgreSQL major version number of the target database. A value of 1 is equal to USER. The constraints can be imported quickly into PostgreSQL using the LOAD export type to parallelize their creation over multiple (-j or JOBS) connections. Ora2Pg will stop comparing two tables after DATA_VALIDATION_ROWS is reached or that 10 errors has been encountered, result is dumped in a file named "data_validation.log" written in the current directory by default. If NULL is allowed in your column this might improve data export speed if you have lot of empty lob. Then: will dispatch indexes creation over 4 simultaneous PostgreSQL connections. This allows you to quickly know on what you are going to work. If you have monetary fields or don't want rounding issues with the extra decimals you should preserve the same numeric(p,s) PostgreSQL data type. You can give a specific SCN or if you want to use the current SCN at first connection time set the value to 'current'. Like table name, the name of the column can be remapped to a different name using the following syntax: will rename Oracle columns 'dico' and 'dossier' from table T_TEST into new name 'dictionary' and 'folder'. Here are the different values of the TYPE directive, default is TABLE: Only one type of export can be perform at the same time so the TYPE directive must be unique. This directive is used to defined the technical key to used to split the query between number of cores set with the ORACLE_COPIES variable. You can use the configuration directive HUMAN_DAYS_LIMIT to change this default value permanently. Enable this directive to rename all indexes using tablename_columns_names. Since release 7.0, you can define a base directory where the file will be written. With FTS Ora2Pg will redefine your text search configuration, for example: then set the FTS_CONFIG ora2pg.conf directive to fr instead of pg_catalog.english. This directive allows you to remap a list of Oracle table name to a PostgreSQL table name during export. Rename it with .dist suffix if you want ora2pg to apply the generic configuration values otherwise, the configuration file will be copied untouched. You should consider replacing this data type by a bigserial (autoincremented sequence), text or uuid data type. You might want this replacement to be sure that your application will have the same behavior but if you have control on you application a better way is to change it to transform empty string into NULL because PostgreSQL makes the difference. This could be a problem if your column is defined with NOT NULL constraint. If you want to import the materialized views in PostgreSQL prior to 9.3 you have to set configuration directive PG_SUPPORTS_MVIEW to 0. Those constraints are passed as at index creation using for example: If those Oracle constraints parameters are not set, the default is to export those columns as generic type GEOMETRY to be able to receive any spatial type. By default here are the values recognized by Ora2Pg: Any values defined here will be added to the default list. There are three values to this directive: never, the default that mean that foreign keys will be declared exactly like in Oracle. Rows will be sorted using this unique key. The KETTLE export type is an original work of Marc Cousin.

The number of PL/SQL lines associated to a migration unit is also defined in this file in the $SIZE_SCORE variable value. The OCI library fail to export them and always return the same first record. If you just want to remove the trailing character, set the value to TRAILING. For configuration directives that allow a list of value, you can use it multiple time, the values will be appended to the list. This will force Ora2Pg to not rewrite such code, default is to try to rewrite simple form of right outer join for the moment. To connect to a local ORACLE instance with connections "as sysdba" you have to set ORACLE_USER to "/" and an empty password. Specifies whether transaction commit will wait for WAL records to be written to disk before the command returns a "success" indication to the client. For Oracle define the following clause: This can also be restricted to some tables data export. If you use an other user (postgres for example) you can force Ora2Pg to set the object owner to be the one used in the Oracle database by setting the directive to 1, or to a completely different username by setting the directive value to that username. If the column's type is a user defined type Ora2Pg will autodetect the composite type and will export its data using ROW(). Before release 7.0 a value of 0 mean no limit so that all tuples are stored in memory before being flushed to disk. You can force Oracle to compile again the invalidated code to get a chance to have it obtain the valid status and then be able to export it. It works same as the delete statement but without using where clause. If you experience any problem with that you can set it to 1 to disable character escaping during data export. You can define common Ora2Pg configuration directives into a single file that can be imported into other configuration files with the IMPORT configuration directive as follow: will import all configuration directives defined into commonfile.conf into the current configuration file. In this case, disable it. You can also use extended filters that will be applied on specific objects or only on their related export type. It is enable by default and concern on TABLE export type. This was the default before Ora2Pg v8.5 so that all strings was escaped first, now this is currently on, causing Ora2Pg to use the escape string syntax (E'') if this parameter is not set to 0. These two directives are used to define the user and password for the Oracle database connection. Ora2Pg have to create one using the DBMS_LOB package. As PostgreSQL has this feature, you can choose how to add the foreign key option. Default is to use de postgresql.conf setting that enable it by default. If you set it to a value greater than 1 it will only change indexes on columns where the character limit is greater or equal than this value. This directive is only used during a COPY export. Hint: Use the -t | --test option before to test all your connections in your CSV file. This directive is usable only with TABLE AND TABLESPACE export type. Ora2Pg will export all data into the main table name. Note that queries will be normalized before output unlike when a file is given at input using the -i option or INPUT directive. Default is export for all objects. Disable this if you want to load full content of BLOB and CLOB and not use LOB locators. These modules are used to connect to the database but they are not mandatory if you want to migrate DDL input files. Estimating the cost of a migration process from Oracle to PostgreSQL is not easy. If you want to convert CHAR(n) from Oracle into varchar(n) or text on PostgreSQL using directive DATA_TYPE, you might want to do some trimming on the data. If you give a file path to that directive, all output will be appended to this file. Enabled by default. For example: will export objects with name EMPLOYEES, COUNTRIES, all objects beginning with 'SALE_' and all objects with a name ending by '_GEOM_SEQ'. Only one object type is allowed at a time. Default value is BOTH. For example: Use this directive to set the database handle's 'LongReadLen' attribute to a value that will be the larger than the expected size of the LOBs. By default Oracle functions are marked as STABLE as they can not modify data unless when used in PL/SQL with variable assignment or as conditional expression. This concern both, COPY and INSERT export type. Default: 1, enabled. Default is 10 human-days. This parameter is used only with SHOW_REPORT and QUERY export type with no input file for queries. By default Ora2Pg will auto-detect this conversion and remove any whitespace at both leading and trailing position. Default spatial object extraction type is INTERNAL.

By default Oracle call to function TO_NUMBER will be translated as a cast into numeric. If you want to use your own default config file, use the -c option to give the path to that file. You need to create the pg_trgm extension into the destination database before importing the objects: By default Ora2Pg creates a function-based index to translate Oracle Text indexes. If the configuration directive is not enabled, it will create one file per package as packagename_OUTPUT, where OUTPUT is the value of the corresponding directive. There's no SQL function available to retrieve BFILE as an EFILE record, then Ora2Pg have to create one using the DBMS_LOB package. Additionally in both cases, Ora2Pg will create a file AUTOINCREMENT_output.sql with a embedded function to update the associated sequences with the restart value set to "SELECT max(colname)+1 FROM tablename". This will allow to import data in two passes. This directive is used to set the schema name to use during export. You can redefined it to use the gen_random_uuid function from pgcrypto extension by changing the function name.

See about this extension. If you want you can cast the call to integer or bigint by changing the value of the configuration directive.

Migration unit scores given to each type of Oracle database object are defined in the Perl library lib/Ora2Pg/ in the %OBJECT_SCORE variable definition. Until PostgreSQL 8.4 such a default value was not supported, this feature is now enable by default. For example, with the following definition in Oracle: custom type "mem_type" is just a string array and can be translated into the following in PostgreSQL: To do so, just use the directive as follow: Ora2Pg will take care to transform all data of this column in the correct format. Some versions of PostgreSQL like Redshift doesn't support substr() and it need to be replaced by a call to substring(). This mean that by default it will add 15 minutes in the migration assessment per function. This is only used when you load data directly to PostgreSQL, the default is off to disable synchronous commit to gain speed at writing data. | Python Not so common but can help. This works only with tablespace that are not TEMP, USERS and SYSTEM. Type of table1.col3 will be replaced by a varchar and table1.col4 by a decimal with precision and scale. Note that regex will not works with 8i database, you must use the % placeholder instead, Ora2Pg will use the LIKE operator. It is not recommended to change those settings but in some case it could be useful. Note that this will prevent Ora2Pg to rewrite function replacement call if needed. Once it is fixed in Oracle source code or you want to comment this calls enable the following directive. The object depends of the export type. For TABLE export you may not want to export all schema constraints, the SKIP configuration directive allows you to specify a space-separated list of constraints that should not be exported. To install ora2pg in a different directory than the default one, simply use this command: then set PERL5LIB to the path to your installation directory before using Ora2Pg. This feature has been developed to help you or your boss to decide which database to migrate first and the team that must be mobilized to operate the migration. By default Ora2Pg will only export valid PL/SQL code. This will considerably accelerate this part of the migration process with huge data size. To not export these tables at all, set the directive to 0. Enabled by default. If you disable the PACKAGE_AS_SCHEMA directive then Ora2Pg will replace all call to package_name.function_name() by package_name_function_name(). When exporting tables, Ora2Pg normally exports constraints as they are, if they are non-deferrable they are exported as non-deferrable. This assessment method is a work in progress so I'm expecting feedbacks on migration experiences to polish the scores/units attributed in those variables. See for a HTML sample of an Oracle database migration report. By default foreign keys are exported into the main output file or in the CONSTRAINT_output.sql file. There is no equivalent data type so you might want to use the DATA_TYPE directive to change the corresponding type in PostgreSQL. You can use .gz xor .bz2 extension to enable compression. character to exclude object matching the regexp given just after. Most of the time using pg_trgm is enough, this is why this directive stand for. For export type FDW the default value is orcl. If you want to change the type of some Oracle columns into PostgreSQL boolean during the export you can define here a list of tables and column separated by space as follow. Tuples are stored in memory before being written to disk, so if you want speed and have enough system resources you can grow this limit to an upper value for example: 100000 or 1000000. When Ora2Pg detect a table with some BLOB it will automatically reduce the value of this directive by dividing it by 10 until his value is below 1000. If you want to disable triggers during data migration, set the value to USER if your are connected as non superuser and ALL if you are connected as PostgreSQL superuser. This name will then be used in the "CREATE FOREIGN TABLE " SQL commands and to import data using oracle_fdw. Can be overwritten by CONVERT_SRID, see above. When no schema name is provided and EXPORT_SCHEMA is enabled, Ora2Pg will export all objects from all schema of the Oracle instance with their names prefixed with the schema name. This will set the schema search_path at top of export SQL file to the schema name set in the SCHEMA directive with the default pg_catalog schema. You can also set the default search_path for the PostgreSQL user you are using to connect to the destination database by using: in this case you don't have to set PG_SCHEMA. The Oracle Instant Client or a full Oracle installation must be installed on the system. This makes these operator classes suitable for use by queries involving pattern matching expressions (LIKE or POSIX regular expressions) when the database does not use the standard "C" locale. In this case the data validation will fail. Release 10 adds a new export type destined to evaluate the content of the database to migrate, in terms of objects and cost to end the migration: Here is a sample of report: Value must be a semicolon separated list of. If the installation of Oracle client used by Perl is setup to request encrypted connections, then your Perl connection to an Oracle database will also be encrypted. Default is to preserve the exact data from Oracle. For example to unlock a policy before reading objects or to set some session parameters. This is the equivalent to set synchronous_commit directive of postgresql.conf file. To set the destination type, use the DATA_TYPE configuration directive: The EFILE type is a user defined type created by the PostgreSQL extension external_file that can be found here: This is a port of the BFILE Oracle type to PostgreSQL. Set it to O if you want to disable export of millisecond from Oracle timestamp columns. Disabled by default. You can use .gz xor .bz2 file extension to enable compression. This directive can be used multiple times. You also need a modern Perl distribution (perl 5.10 and more). For example, Perl's DBI uses DBD-Oracle, which uses the Oracle client for actually handling database communication. If set to none, no conversion will be done. Ora2Pg have to create one using the DBMS_LOB package. Default is to save all data in the OUTPUT file. Here are some examples: The last applies two different delete where clause on tables TABLE_TEST and TABLE_INFO and a generic delete where clause on DATE_CREATE to all other tables. It will use tables ALL_ instead. This configuration directive adds multiprocess support to extract data from Oracle. Default value is output.sql. Use this directive to add a specific schema to the search path to look for PostGis functions. To be able to quickly test data import it is useful to limit data export to the first thousand tuples of each table. Setting VIEW_AS_TABLE to product_prices and using export type TABLE, will force Ora2Pg to detect columns returned types and to generate a create table statement: Data will be loaded following the COPY or INSERT export type and the view declaration. The export action is perform following a single configuration directive 'TYPE', some other add more control on what should be really exported. If you are using Instant Client from ZIP archives, the LD_LIBRARY_PATH and ORACLE_HOME will be the same and must be set to the directory where you have installed the files. On some Perl distribution you may need to install the Time::HiRes Perl module. If only EXPORT_SCHEMA is set all schemes from Oracle and PostgreSQL are scanned. By default Ora2Pg will set NLS_LANG to AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8 and NLS_NCHAR to AL32UTF8. This only concerns export type FDW, COPY and INSERT. This will ask to Oracle to validate the PL/SQL that could have been invalidate after a export/import for example. Value is a comma-separated list of TABLE:COLUMN:TYPE structure. You can overwrite this value to any PG type, like integer or float.

This is used to export tables and views in separate files. If you do not supply a credential with ORACLE_PWD and you have installed the Term::ReadKey Perl module, Ora2Pg will ask for the password interactively. Enabled by default. If you want to build the binary package for your preferred Linux distribution take a look at the packaging/ directory of the source tarball. Default is five minutes per unit. If you set the destination type to BYTEA, the default, Ora2Pg will export the content of the BFILE as bytea. The Oracle specific PL/SQL code generated for functions, procedures, packages and triggers has to be reviewed to match the PostgreSQL syntax. The limit is the number of cores on your machine. Enable this directive to use COPY FREEZE instead of a simple COPY to export data with rows already frozen. All Perl modules can always be found at CPAN ( If you have PostgreSQL 8.1 or more consider the use of ROLES and set this directive to 1 to export roles. It will return 2 when a child process has been interrupted and you've gotten the warning message: "WARNING: an error occurs during data export. table oracle schema hr sql tables clusters database tablename figure multitenant difference between 11g docs server cd administration introduction

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