| usage worldwide, KRIVOY ROG, UKRAINE - FEBRUARY 5, 2016: Panoramic view of old soviet aircraft TU-154 Tupolev at an abandoned aerodrome. When ATC called again to instruct the descent, this time addingexpedite, the Tu154 crew acknowledged the descent instruction immediately but did not report their (ignored) TCAS RA in the contrary direction. Three-engine narrow-body airliner Tupolev Tu-154 of the UTair airlines. 296,357,005 stock photos, 360 panoramic images, vectors and videos, Share Alamy images with your team and customers. Sheremetyevo, Moscow Region, Russia - June 24, 2009: Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M taking off at Sheremetyevo international airport.
(Photo ITAR-TASS / Marina Lystseva/ file image 2006), Tupolev Tu-154M stands on the tarmac of Vnukovo airport outside Moscow during a demonstration of the new colour design of Russia's air carrier "Siberia", March 24, 2005. 25th December, 2016. At least 70 people were feared dead after a Russian plane travelling from Moscow to Barcelona ignored warnings from ground control and collided with a cargo plane over southern Germany late on Monday. Tupolev TU 154 airliner of the Kavminvody Avia at Domodedovo airport outside Moscow. Black an, Kunovice, Czech Republic. Passenger aircraft Tupolev Tu-154 of Air Koryo (North Korea) in a sky. A Tupolev Tu-154 airliner mid-flight. The imminent separation infringement was not noticed by ATC at the time. Victor Vytolskiy/Alamy Live News. The Pulkovo Airlines Tupolev 154, crashed near Donetsk on August 22, is pictured before the accident on the airfield at the Sheremetyevo Airport. Aviation and transportation. Alternatively, this task should be taken over by APP Zurich. In respect of the lack of any response by the Tu154 crew to their two TCAS RAs, it was established thatneither of the two pilots had any practical experience of reacting to real TCAS RAsand given that a response in accordance with them is only required in specified regions outside the Russian Federation where they had conducted only a few flights - 12 in the case of the left seat pilot and 4 in the case of the right seat pilotin the year 2002- this was considered to represent amarginal practical TCAS experiencein any mode of activation. MINSK, BELARUS - MAY 01, 2018: Open air museum of old civil aviation at the enter of Minsk airport. A Tupolev Tu-154 plane of the Russian Defense Ministry with 92 people on board crashed into the Black Sea near the city of Sochi on December 25, 2016. PICTURE TAKEN MARCH 24, 2005 REUTERS/Dmitry Petrochenko, TAS04: SAMARA, RUSSIA. SHEREMETYEVO, MOSCOW REGION, RUSSIA - FEBRUARY 22, 2009: Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M RA-85644 landing at Sheremetyevo international airport.
On 1 July 2002, aBoeing 757-200 being operated by DHL on a cargo flight from Bergamo to Brussels and aTupolev Tu154Mbeing operated by Bashkirian Airlines on a non scheduled passenger flight from Moscow Domodedovo to Barcelona were destroyed whilst en route by amid air collisionover southern Germany near berlingen at night inVisual Meteorological Conditions (VMC). JANUARY 29. There were no survivors in the crash of the plane carrying Polish President Lech Kaczynski in Russia on April 10, Polish state news agency PAP reported, quoting local officials in Smolensk. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak is aborting a trip to Washington and returning to Israel to tackle the hijacked crisis. The plane of Russia's Defence Ministry bound for Russia's Hmeymim air base in Syria, was carrying members of the Alexandrov Ensemble, Russian servicemen and journalists, and Yelizaveta Glinka (known as Doctor Liza), Spravedlivaya Pomoshch [Just Aid] International Public Organisation dir, A general view of the site of a Tupolev Tu-154 passenger plane crash near Janatabad, 150 km (93 miles) west of Tehran July 15, 2009. Budapest, Hungary - 09 02 2021: Tupolev Tu-154B at the Aeropark an open-air aviation museum in Budapest. Photo TASS / Mark Redkin *** Local Caption *** A00179E4, Tupolev Tu-154 airliner, 1968 Moscow, USSR. (AP Photo/Misha Japaridze, File), A November 5, 2008 file photo shows the Polish government Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft carrying Poland's President Lech Kaczynski as he arrives for an official visit at Ljubljana's airport in Slovenia. The Tupolev Tu-154 airliner owned by the Russia- Russian Airlines air company at the Sheremetyevo airport. Bulgarian Prime Minister Boiko Borisov signs the book of condolences at the Polish embassy in Sofia April 12, 2010 for the victims of Saturday's plane crash of Polish government Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft in Smolensk, Russia. The Caspian Airlines aircraft crashed in Iran on Wednesday on its way to Armenia, after catching fire mid-air and ploughing into farmland killing all 168 people on board just 16 minutes after take-off. REUTERS/Petr Josek (POLAND - Tags: POLITICS DISASTER OBITUARY MILITARY). Copyright 22/07/2022 Alamy Ltd. All rights reserved. He orbited the Earth once in the Vostok 1 spacecraft, a flight that lasted 1 hour and 48 minutes. TU-154 aircraft after major repairs performed in 'Aviakor' aviation plant, belonged to 'Bazovy Element' company, to the order of China. The release stated "Tu-95 / BEAR D naval reconnaissance aircraft conduct regular deployments to Cuba and Angola and are stationed in Vietnam as part of the Soviet Navy's expanding global presence." The Tupolev Tu-134 is a three-engine airliner built in the Soviet Union. Both had been on the same Zurich ACC frequency under radar control in Class A airspace communicating with ATC in English for nearly 5 minutes when both aircraft receivingTCAS TAsas a result of potentially conflicting trajectories. A reconstruction of the flight paths of the two aircraft prior to their collision was made and is superimposed on a chart of the area in the illustration below: It was established that both aircraft had been under the control of Zurich ACC in accordance with a delegation agreement between the German and Swiss ANSPs. Yuri Gagarin (1934-1968, right), Soviet cosmonaut and first man in space, Andrei Tupolev (1888-1972, centre), Soviet aircraft designer, and Vasily Ryabikov (left), Gosplan deputy chairman. REUTERS/Dmitry Petrochenko, A Tupolev TU-154 passenger jet of the Bashkyrian Russian airlines taxis on Friedrichshafen's airport in southwestern Germany July 3, 2002. The Investigation examined the situation which had prevailed at Zurich ACC in the period leading up to the collision and concluded that despite the effects of the overnight maintenance,the technical capability of the radar system in the fallback mode was sufficient to ensure safe flight operations. REUTERS/Caren Firouz (IRAN TRANSPORT DISASTER). Polish President Lech Kaczynski's coffin returned home to a stunned nation on Sunday, a day after he and much of the country's political and military elite perished in the plane crash in Russia. Kaczynski's coffin returned home to a stunned nation on Sunday, a day after he and much of the country's political and military elite perished in a plane crash in Russia. Both aircraft were at FL360, the 757 tracking north and the Tu154 tracking east. Respond immediately and manoeuvre as indicated, unless doing so would jeopardise the safety of the airplane. German teams resumed the hunt on Wednesday for clues to the cause of a mid-air crash that killed a planeload of Russian children, but officials have already started trading blame. The plane was hosted by Czech ice hockey players from the Nagano Olympics 1998. Credit: Dalibor Gluck/CTK Photo/Alamy Live News, MINSK, BELARUS - MAY 01 2018: Outdoor view of unidentiifed people boarding the tupolev Tu-154 EW-85741 Belavia Airlines, in the Minsk National Airport during a gorgeous sunny day in Minsk, Novosibirsk, Russia - April 1, 2019: Tupolev Tu-154B-2 RA-85360 Russia - Air Force in the sky after take off from the international airport Tolmache, KRIVOY ROG, UKRAINE - FEBRUARY 6, 2016: Old aircraft TU-154 Tupolev from the set of the soviet movie 'The Crew'. A Polish army officer salutes near coffins of victims of Saturday's Polish government Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft crash near Smolensk, during a repatriation ceremony at an airport in Warsaw April 14, 2010. When ACC is required to manage the approach services for Friedrichshafen and Altenrhein/St. All 71 occupants of the two aircraft were killed. People lay flowers at the Alexandrov Hall, a rehearsal room of the Alexandrov Ensemble, as they pay tribute to the victims of a Russian Defense Ministry plane crash. The Pulkovo Airlines Tupolev 154, crashed near Donetsk on August 22, is pictured before the accident on the airfield at the Sheremetyevo Airport. Photographed in September 1998. Ground impact of the 757 was followed by an extensive fire which also involved the surrounding forest. one Radar Planner (RP) and one Radar Executive (RE). Learn more about how you can collaborate with us. It was noted that had the descent to the Tu154 been given earlier (but nevertheless still after the point when the visual STCA activation would normally have occurred), there would have been no loss of separation and no TCAS TA or RA would have been issued. July 20, 2007 - News : The Pulkovo Airlines Tupolev 154, crashed near Donetsk on August 22, is pictured before the accident on the airfield at the Sheremetyevo Airport. The picture shows an Orenburg Airlines Tupolev Tu 154. Available EPS-8 vector format separated by groups and layers for easy edit. On 1 October 2002, one Recommendation was issued as follows: On 21 July 2003, three further Recommendations were issued as follows: At the conclusion of the Investigation, on 19 May 2004, the following fifteen Recommendations were issued: The Investigation was completed on 19 May 2004 and theFinal Reportissued. The use of appropriate phraseology, with an emphasis on achieving maximum effects within minimum possible time/radio transmission. Priests celebrate a mass in memory of the late Polish President Lech Kaczynski, his wife Maria and the victims of Saturday's Polish government Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft crash at St. Anna's Church in Warsaw's city center April 12, 2010. The 757 lost most of its vertical stabiliser in the collision and was destroyed by impact forces and the 154 broke into several pieces in flight. REUTERS/Caren Firouz (IRAN TRANSPORT DISASTER), Workers sift through the wreckage from a Tupolev Tu-154 passenger plane crash near Janatabad, 150 km (93 miles) west of Tehran July 15, 2009. A Russian plane with 92 people aboard, including a well-known military band, crashed into the Black Sea on its way to Syria on Sunday, Dec. 25, 2016, minutes after takeoff from the resort city of Sochi, the Defense Ministry said. Domodedovo, Moscow Region, Russia - June 15, 2014: Kosmos airlines Tupolev Tu-154M standing at Domodedovo international airport. VLADIVOSTOK, Russian Federation. (Photo ITAR-TASS / Marina Lystseva), ITAR-TASS 96: MOSCOW, RUSSIA. akw/HO REUTERS, The TU-144, dubbed the Concordsky, hurtles skywards after 20 years in mothballs Friday Nov. 29, 1996 from a Zhukovsky airfield, some 30 kms. Sheremetyevo, Moscow Region, Russia - November 7, 2008: Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M taking off at Sheremetyevo international airport. Semyon Maisterman/TASS, A Soviet supersonic aircraft of the type TU 144 is on 19.4.1972 in the approach to the airport Hannover-Langenhagen. This manoeuvre was performed contrary to the generated TCAS RA. He later returned to active service as a test pilot, dying in a crash during a training flight in 1968. Aircraft designer and member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Andrei Tupolev. Another plane, a Tupolev Tu-134, crashed almost simutaneously in the Tula region, some 150 km from Moscow, and Russia's security officials said they were investigating a possible terrorist attack. Eight seconds later, at 21:35:32 UTC, the aircraft collided at an altitude of 34890 feet. REUTERS/Oleg Popov (BULGARIA - Tags: DISASTER TRANSPORT POLITICS), A piece of wreckage from a Tupolev Tu-154 passenger plane lies at the site of a crash near Janatabad, 150 km (93 miles) west of Tehran July 15, 2009. 03rd Aug, 2018. It was found that the practice of rostering only two controllers at night had developed because of the personnel situation whereas the previous practice had been to roster three controllers for such shifts which ensured that two controllers were always at their positions whilst the third took a break. In order to operate outside the Russian Federation where TCAS was not in use, both the pilots and the navigator had completed the required TCAS familiarisation training with their Operator. Whilst this Manual did explicitly prohibit manoeuvres which were contradictory to the guidance provided by a TCAS RA, it was found to also state thatATC measures are the main and major condition of collision avoidanceand went on to state that the most important actions for the avoidance of in-flight collisions werethe visual control of the situation in the airspace by the crew and the correct execution of all instructions issued by ATCwith the following reference to TCAS stating merely that itis an additional instrument which ensures the timely determination of oncoming traffic, the classification of the risk and, if necessary, planning of an advice for a vertical avoidance manoeuvre. ZHUKOVSKY, MOSCOW REGION, RUSSIA - OCTOBER 13, 2014: Tupolev Tu-154M RA-85317 perfoming test flight at Zhukovsky. (AP Photo/Dmitry Petrochenko), ITAR-TASS: TYUMEN REGION, RUSSIA. Five seconds later, the Tu154 initiated this descent without acknowledging the instruction to ATC, but two seconds after that, coordinated TCAS RAs were annunciated in both aircraft. However, this had not included simulator practice because TCAS equipment was not installed on the simulator used for training. At the time of the accident the Zurich ACC was being operated by a single controller supported by an assistant, which was as per prevailing UnitSOPs. (Photo ITAR-TASS / Marina Lystseva), MOSCOW, RUSSIA. A volunteer looks through wreckage from a Tupolev Tu-154 passenger plane crash near Janatabad, 150 km (93 miles) west of Tehran July 15, 2009. Aviation and transportation. Russia, Vladivostok, 10/05/2018. Alamy and its logo are trademarks of Alamy Ltd. and are registered in certain countries. Today German Defence Minister Volker Ruehe at a news conference in Bonn said that twenty-four passengers are believed dead after a Tupolev U-154 crashed while flying to Cape Town in South Africa on Saturday. On 1st July 2002, a Russian-operated Tu154 on a passenger flight collided at night with a cargo Boeing 757-200 over berlingen, Germany with the consequent loss of control of both aircraft and the death of all occupants.
Recognition of potential air traffic conflict and maintenance of aircraft separation in accordance with the international standards. Polish President Lech Kaczynski's coffin returned home to a stunned nation on Sunday, a day after he and much of the country's political and military elite perished in a plane crash in Russia. Management and quality assurance of the air navigation service company (had accepted) for years that, during times of low traffic flow at night, only one controller worked and the other retired to rest. His ashes were interred with full military honours in the Kremlin Wall. Gallen, one additional controller shall be assigned to this task.
Here are some details about the Tu-154 and its safety record: * The Tu-154 is the standard airliner on Russian domestic routes and other states of the former Soviet Union and to a lesser extent in eastern Europe and Iran, * It seats up to 180 passengers with 3-4 crew, * It was Russias answer to a pair of Western planes from the 1960s also configured with three engines at the rear -- the Boeing 727 and Britains Hawker Siddeley Trident, * Russian airline safety hit rock bottom during the economic chaos of the early 1990s when there were at least 10 fatal crashes involving the Tu-154, * Two of the worst crashes in the last 30 years involved the Tu-154 in the 1980s - one in 1984 when an Aeroflot Tu-154 collided with two airport service vehicles while landing at Omsk, Russia, killing around 174 people, and one in July 1985 when an Aeroflot Tu-154 crashed in Uzbekistan killing 200, * Wednesday marked the third deadly crash of a Tu-154 in Iran since 2002 and the deadliest crash in the Islamic Republic since 2003, * The Tu-154 first flew in 1968, was delivered to Aeroflot in early 1971 and entered regular service in February 1972. AUGUST 23. REUTERS/Caren Firouz (IRAN TRANSPORT DISASTER). Copyright SKYbrary Aviation Safety, 2021-2022. Mark Redkin/TASS *** Local Caption *** A00147C6, . It was also found that during the period when the conflicting clearances remained undetected by the controller, he had unexpectedly been dealing with a delayed A320 inbound to Friedrichshafen and this had necessitated a move to an adjacent workstation where he had devoted more time than expected to an unsuccessful attempt to contact the airport caused by a technical defect.
Copyright Aflo Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. There were no survivors in the crash of a Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft carrying Kaczynski in Russia, the local governor of the Smolensk region where the crash took place said on April 10, 2010. A Tupolev Tu-154 plane of the Russian Defense Ministry with 92 people on board crashed into the Black Sea near the city of Sochi on December 25, 2016. (Photo ITAR-TASS / Maxim Slutsky) *** Local Caption *** RE0FB24F, FILE- In this Aug. 29, 1996 file photo a Tupolev Tu-154 passenger jet, the same model as the one that made an emergency landing in Moscow comes in for a landing at Moscow's Vnukovo airport. People lays candles near Alexandrov Hall, a rehearsal room of the Alexandrov Ensemble, as they pay tribute to the victims of a Russian Defense Ministry plane crash. Management and quality assurance of the air navigation service company did not ensure that during the night all open workstations were continuously staffed by controllers. The other two crew members were the Navigator and the Flight Engineer. Mark Redkin/TASS *** Local Caption *** A00147B1, Major Yuri Gagarin, the Russian astronaut, shakes hands with a man as he boards a Russian TU-104 jet airlines at London airport, United Kingdom on July 15, 1961, to return to Moscow after his visit to London. Never manoeuvre in the opposite sense to an RA, nor maintain a vertical rate in the opposite sense to an RA.
The under-supervision status of the left seat Captain was because of a Company requirement for each Captain operating to Barcelona to have completed two supervised flights before being permitted to act as commander to that destination. AUGUST 23. REUTERS/Vincent Kessler, A Tupolev TU-154 passenger jet of the Bashkyrian Russian airlines speeds up before lift off on the tarmac of the Friedrichshafen's airport in southwestern Germany July 3, 2002. Maintenance was in progress at the ACC overnight which meant that the radar system was functioning infallbackmode under which minimum lateral separation was increased to 7nm from the normal 5nm. 25th December, 2016. The Polish central bank governor Slawomir Skrzypek was also on board the plane, the bank's press office told Reuters. Two Russian passenger planes, Tupolev-134 and Tupolev-154, with a total of more than 80 people on board went missing within minutes of each other late on August 24, 2004, and one was confirmed to have crashed, the Emergency Ministry said. Photo: Felix Kstle/dpa. An adjustment of volume that prevents the controller from missing the acoustical STCA warning. The supersonic passenger jet has a new lease on life as a flying laboratory, doing research for NASA, a group of American aircraft manufacturers and Russia's Tupolev aircraft designers. The Tu-154 aircraft carrying the Russian football team landed at Domodedovo International Airport. CHKALOVSKY, MOSCOW REGION, RUSSIA - SEPTEMBER 28, 2011: Tupolev Tu-154B-2 RA-85571 of Russian Air Force landing at Chkalovsky. They agreed to make the Vladivostok-Avia company the official air carrier in Japan on airways linking the capital of Maritime Territory with the Japanese cities of Toyama and Niigata. It was noted that, althoughShort Term Conflict Alert (STCA)was installed at the ACC and covered the area where the conflict developed, the normal optical STCA function was inactive with the radar system in a degraded mode - a fact that the controller did not remember at the time. The plane had been chartered by the coal mining company Trust Arktik Ugol. The release stated "in-flight refueling from BADGER A tankers extends the range of BADGER C strike aircraft." There were major upgrades in the 1980s and 1990s to improve the wings, engines and avionics, * More than 900 of the planes have been produced including freighter versions and about 250 remain in service, Sources: Reuters, www.aerotransport.org, www.tupolev.ru, www.flightlevel350.com, www.airliners.net, Writing by David Cutler, London Editorial Reference Unit; Editing by Jason Neely, 20151010. It was found that whilst it was quite normal and accepted for only two controllers plus assistants to be on duty for the night shift, there were no specific night shift procedures covering this method of working. Soviet Union's chief aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev. "Siberia" is the second biggest passenger air carrier in Russia after traditional Aeroflot. REUTERS/Forum/Andrzej Rubis/Files (POLAND - Tags: TRANSPORT DISASTER IMAGES OF THE DAY), = MAKS 2009 Aerospace Exhibition . The collision of a Russian passenger plane and a DHL cargo jet late on Monday killed 71 people, including 52 children and teenagers. REUTERS/ISNA Stringer (IRAN IMAGES OF THE DAY TRANSPORT DISASTER) Personnel reserve planning of the operational staff for maintenance work on the ATC Systems. German teams resumed the hunt on Wednesday for clues to the cause of a mid-air crash that killed a planeload of Russian children, but officials have already started trading blame. ATC advised of traffic (the 757) at FL360. Establish and implement the checklists for the maintenance as well operational staff, when maintenance work on the ATC Systems is undertaken, to enhance the safety net. There shall be at least two controllers on active duty at all times. REUTERS/Jim Hollander, The Dagestan hijacked plane Tupolev 154 with 58 people on board sits on the tarmac at the Uvda army base in the southern Negev region in Israel. Gagarin made the first manned space flight on 12 April 1961. It made a successful test flight on 31st December 1968, two months before Concorde, and first broke the sound barrier on 5th June 1969. Seven seconds after these TAs had been simultaneously annunciated, ATC, having become aware of the conflicting clearances which they had issued, instructed the Tu154 to descend to FL350. REUTERS/Caren Firouz (IRAN TRANSPORT DISASTER). The 757 followed the RA promptly withAPdisconnection after 2 seconds and 1500fpm descent attained 12 seconds after that. (AP Photo), United States Department of Defense released its 1985 assessment of Soviet Military Power at the Pentagon in Washington, DC. Passenger aircraft Tupolev Tu-154 of Air Koryo (North Korea) on runway. A TU-154 passenger airliner(OPS) of the Far Eastern Vladivostok-Avia company is to make its first-ever flight under the company's own flag, not that of Aeroflot, along the Vladivostok-Toyama-Vladivostok route on Friday. The Caspian Airlines aircraft crashed in Iran on Wednesday on its way to Armenia, after catching fire mid-air and ploughing into farmland killing all 168 people on board just 16 minutes after take-off. NASA research pilots assessed its handling qualities between September 1998 and spring 1999. Selection of best possible time from operational aspects for the maintenance work on the ATC Systems. Chkalovsky, Moscow Region, Russia - March 2, 2011: Tupolev Tu-154B-2 of Russian Air Force landing at Chkalovsky. MOSCOW, RUSSIA - DECEMBER 26, 2016: Russian and Moscow flags flying with black ribbons outside the Moscow Metro's Okhotny Ryad station as Russia's President Vladimir Putin declares December 26, 2016 the Day of National Mourning for the victims of the Tupolev Tu-154 plane crash off Sochi coastline a day earlier. It was concluded thatin case of a separation infringement with high closing speeds the aural STCA offers little use. The Caspian Airlines aircraft crashed in northwestern Iran on Wednesday on its way to neighbouring Armenia and all 168 people on board were killed, Iranian media reported. All rights reserved. A Tupolev Tu-154 stands on the tarmac of the Chkalovsky military airport north of Moscow, Russia January 15, 2015. Passenger Jet. (Photo ITAR-TASS / Marina Lystseva/ file image 2006), ITAR-TASS 02: MOSCOW, RUSSIA. 95/Russian Air Force Tu-95MS strategic bombers, An appropriate indication of failure or unavailability of STCA at the affected air traffic controller workstation. When activated the acoustical STCA warning should sound permanently until acknowledgement at the affected workstation by the ATCO. , , USSR, Moscow. The Tupolev Tu-144 LL (LL - Flying Laboratory- Russian) named 'Moscow' and flying for the joint USA-Russia HSCT project (HSCT - High Speed Civil Transport) in the air. MINSK, BELARUS - MAY 01, 2018: Informaive sign close to open air museum of old civil aviation in Minsk airport, the Tupolev Tu-134 is a three-engine airliner built in the Soviet Union, VNUKOVO, MOSCOW REGION, RUSSIA - MARCH 23, 2013: Tupolev Tu-154M old russian commercial airliner of Gazpromavia airlines landing at Vnukovo internatio, Candles and flowers are seen in front the Polish embassy in Sofia April 12, 2010 in memory of the victims of Saturday's plane crash of Polish government Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft in Smolensk, Russia. The single controller was required to undertake the duties normally divided between a radar planning controller and a radar executive controller. | usage worldwide, A Soviet supersonic aircraft of the type TU 144 is on 19.4.1972, two days before the start of the air show in Hanover, in the approach to the airport Hannover-Langenhagen. Soon afterwards, with the rate of descent now 2600 fpm, ATC were advised by the 757 of their TCAS Descent. The 757 had begun to pass just beneath the Tu154 but a reconstruction by the Investigation (see below) indicated that the vertical stabiliser of the 757 had impacted the left side of the Tu154 fuselage.
The flight crews of both the aircraft involved were assessed by the Investigation as having high levels of qualification and relevant experience. Although this second alert did activate normally, it was not heard by anyone in the control room and in any case, the controller had already recognised the conflict and responded accordingly. A quick re-establishment of the minimum separation, in an event of having fallen below it. US Department of Defense, USA - 1985, United States Department of Defense released its 1985 assessment of Soviet Military Power at the Pentagon in Washington, DC.