romania abortion ban documentary

They converse about trivial matters while Otilia and Adi remain silent. [93] Peter T. Chattaway, writing for Christianity Today, opined that "The abortion itself is handled in a way that could be seen to support both sides of the abortion debate", given the abuse to women, but also the portrayal of "the procedure's bloody aftermath". [11], During the years of Decree 770, the only available abortion methods, all illegal, could prove fatal to women, causing thousands of deaths. Otilia: [subtitled version] We're never going to talk about this, okay? [92], In The Australian Feminist Law Journal, Fiona Jenkins interpreted the story as a morally ambiguous argument that safe abortion services should be allowed, but that Otilia telling Gbia they will never talk about the matter reflects her "trauma not only of what she has undergone but what she has done". No wonder women cursed their little babies as soon as they were born. [59] The Independent critic Jonathan Romney characterized it as "claustrophobic" in parts and an "intense realist exercise". To continue reading, please create your free account with your email,or login if you have registered already. The lack of a score can also be seen as contributing to a sense of pending danger. [40] He argued that class and generational conflicts are presented in the dinner party scene, where the characters have more food than lower classes, discuss social issues such as conscription into the Romanian Armed Forces, and treat Otilia as representative of the "new generation" that does not appreciate what it has been given. [80] Jay Weissberg from Variety magazine said that the film was "pitch perfect and brilliantly acted a stunning achievement". [24], In setting out to write the screenplay, he intended the focus to be less on the abortion, and more on the time and its people. [66] Filmmaker Sorin Avram documented the caravan tour through Focani, Petroani, Clrai and other communities, and interviewed some of the audience of 17,584 people, who described it as shocking and disturbing. [79] Time magazine's Richard and Mary Corliss described it as a "gripping, satisfying film" and particularly noted the use of minimalism and "formal rigor" as defining aesthetic characteristics. [18] Sanctions against contraception were also in place,[19] and sex education was rare. These people were talking the same language but still looked like aliens. [2][84], In 2009, The Guardian ranked it seventh in its "Best films of the noughties" list, surveying the past decade. [63] In September 2007, it competed at the San Sebastin International Film Festival. [68] Television stations and an airline also wished to censor the fetus shot. [81], Peter Bradshaw remarked on the sharpness of Otilia and the apparent naivet of Gbia, but considered this is how their crisis could have affected them, and praised the film as "a masterpiece of intimate desperation". Maierhofer commented a woman will consider many things in making a choice, including health, finances and what the potential child would face. Mungiu and cinematographer Oleg Mutu shot it in Bucharest and other Romanian locations in 2006. "[26], Mungiu revised the screenplay numerous times during productions, creating 17 drafts. [24] Laura Vasiliu also had stage experience. Avram reported on 15 towns, with the most viewers in, Festival cancelled while in progress (1968), Romanian Communist Party General Secretary, economy of the Socialist Republic of Romania, San Sebastin International Film Festival, List of accolades received by 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, List of Romanian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, List of submissions to the 80th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, "4 Luni, 3 Saptamani, Si 2 Zile - 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days (2007)", "4 Months, 3 Weeks And 2 Days (4 Luni, 3 Saptamini Si 2 Zile)", "My favourite Cannes winner: 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days", "Time Warped: 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days: Take Two", "4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days Director Cristian Mungiu Interview", "Decade: Cristian Mungiu on '4 Months, 3 Weeks, and 2 Days', "Laura Vasiliu - 'Cred in povestile fericite', "Historical Context of Mungiu's Movie 432", "The cold world behind the window: 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days and Romanian cinema's return to real-existing communism", "Heartbreak Hotel: Film of the Month: 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days", "A Miraculous Frame: 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days: Take Three", "Fipresci Grand Prize to Mungui's '4 Months', "Remembering the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival", "4 Months, 3 Weeks & 2 Days to be Shown in French Schools", "DVDs: '4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days'; 'Burn Notice: Season 1'; 'Californication: Season 1'; 'Fool's Gold' and more", "The choice and the cost: 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days", "Review: Cristian Mungiu's 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days on Criterion Blu-ray", "Metacritic: 2007 Film Critic Top Ten Lists", "Metacritic: 2008 Film Critic Top Ten Lists", "Friend Indeed Who Doesn't Judge or Flinch", "Best films of the noughties No 7: 4 Months, 3 Weeks & 2 Days", "Romanian director wins top prize at Cannes", "Oscar Omissions Provoke Outcry, In Any Language", "Romania's Oscar entry 'Beyond the Hills' director", "Foreign-language Oscar nominees portray true grittiness", "From minimalist representation to excessive interpretation: Contextualizing 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days", "Cristian Mungiu, Auteur-Director 'Twenty Years After': Strategies of Translating the Past on Screen (4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days and Tales from the Golden Age)", Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives, Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Foreign Language Film, The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover, Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Foreign Language Film, National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Language Film, New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Foreign Language Film,,_3_Weeks_and_2_Days&oldid=1099655973, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 21 July 2022, at 23:20. [22] In Mungiu's mind, this would "keep a proper distance from the subject and be honest with the story". Register a free Taylor & Francis Online account today to boost your research and gain these benefits: The Representation of the Socialist Abortion Ban as Womens Reproductive Burden in Postsocialist Romanian Cinema, History/Women and Gender Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, /doi/full/10.1080/2040350X.2022.2087342?needAccess=true. [22], Scholar Dominique Nasta saw the style as a "minimalist, 'less is more' line". When Gbia becomes pregnant, the two young women arrange a meeting with Mr. Bebe in a hotel, where he is to perform an illegal abortion. Mr. Bebe then performs the abortion by injecting a probe and an unnamed fluid into Gbia's uterus, and leaves Otilia instructions on how to dispose of the fetus when it comes out. This raised concerns among French film industry workers about censorship. It went on to win numerous honours, including Best Film at the European Film Awards and Romania's national Gopo Awards. Otilia initially declines, relenting after Adi becomes upset. Romanian Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceauescu enacted the abortion law Decree 770 in 1966 in order to increase the birth rates in the country. [67] At Transylvania, Mungiu was happy to see that Romanian viewers could comprehend the dark comedy. [61] At Cannes, IFC Films purchased distribution rights for the United States. [54] Despite the handheld camera, Mungiu said the crew developed a style where shots were taken so the action is followed but the camera's movements would not be overly obvious to the audience. Original title: 4 luni, 3 saptamni si 2 zile. [33] A scene showing Gbia visiting her father (played by Costica Babu) was deleted for narrative purposes, given Otilia is the protagonist.

[102] In 2013, The Wrap named Mungiu "The Man Who Changed Oscars Rules". [44], The term "communism" is never mentioned,[42] the existence of Decree 770 is only implied,[18] and president Nicolae Ceauescu is never named. It tells the story of two students, roommates in a university dormitory, who try to procure an illegal abortion. The film won three awards at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival, including the Palme d'Or. We use cookies to improve your website experience. [21] Anamaria Marinca had not worked with Mungiu before reading the screenplay, and found the story intriguing. DOK LEIPZIG 2005: Showing Good Films Is Not Enough, DokuFest announces competition programme, View From the World selections, UnionDocs to launch Artistic Differences series at Dokufest, Sergei Loznitsa to receive 2022 Sarajevo Film Festival retrospective. [32] Mutu set up lights from building roofs for this sequence, employing a rod and paper lanterns for the camera. [27], To highlight the emotional state of the characters, the film was shot in long takes, close-ups were avoided, and a score was not used. This paper examines the representation of back-alley abortions in postsocialist Romanian cinema as reproductive burden and the abortion ban during the socialist period 19661989, when Decree 770 was in effect. By delving into the consequences of his obsessed policy in Children of the Decree, Iepan resolutely establishes why they turned against him and made his evil regime come to an end. Foreign viewers not familiar with the situation in Romania in the late 1980s may be unaware that not only abortion was illegal there, but contraception as well. [102] Steven Zeitchik of the Los Angeles Times remarked the nominees of 2011 reflected the change, displaying unorthodox and challenging subject matter such as youth violence (In a Better World), incest by rape (Incendies) and particularly torture (Dogtooth). [106] His next film, Beyond the Hills (2012), similarly depicted Romanian extremism, and Mungiu was inspired to make the cinematic adaptation after seeing the stage version in New York while promoting 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days. This is seen at the end, where Otilia forbids further discussion of the abortion. [37], Academic Judit Pieldner summed up the plot as "the story of a friendship facing a moral test". [95] Later, it became the first Romanian work to receive the European Film Award for Best Film. [30][n 2] In several scenes, the indoor locations were so small that the camera had to be placed outside of the room. [100] Mungiu later said the omission and subsequent furor brought the picture substantial publicity, and that the experience taught him that critics and festival juries have differing tastes from the Academy. Author Doru Pop acknowledged the differing number of characters and no male Jesus, but asserted that it is relevant to have a dinner while a tragedy is unfolding. New & Upcoming Superhero Movies and Series. [53] The Independent's Jonathan Romney named it a "masterpiece", acknowledging the description "Romanian abortion drama" would be off-putting for some viewers but defending it as "harrowing". Register to receive personalised research and resources by email. See production, box office & company info. After the argument, Otilia calls Gbia from Adi's house. The Representation of the Socialist Abor . Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing & Allied Health.

[18], Responding to analogies to the Dardennes' style, Mungiu said in 2008 that he had only seen their La Promesse (1996) but was now interested in seeing more, and that he had asked the brothers to attend a showing of his film. [25], The film debuted on the first day of the Cannes Film Festival in May 2007. Lost your password? [34] With 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, Mutu used an Arriflex 535. Otilia stares blankly at Gbia. [52] Mungiu conceded that such similarities were accidental, and that once he appreciated the potential analogy during production, the filmmakers added a more focused view of Otilia to reveal her stress. 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days became the subject of some controversy over censorship, the abortion debate, and its exclusion from the 80th Academy Awards, but in 2016 it was ranked No. [94] Writer Waltraud Maierhofer also interpreted it as "not simply for or against abortion". In an effort to increase the dwindling population, the dictatorial Communist regime had issued Decree 770 in 1967 which put a ban on not only abortion but also contraceptive medicine. [59] Critic Peter Debruge declared the style "the antithesis of your well-lit, elegantly shot Hollywood movies or the locally made films of Mungiu's childhood". Centrul National al Cinematografiei (CNC). After 2009 she worked freelance, until she died in 2013. [101], Following the Academy Award controversy, the Academy reformed its methodology of choosing Best Foreign Language Film nominees, allowing a committee of approximately 20 members to name three favourite candidates, balancing out a shortlist composed by a second committee made up of hundreds of voters. After speaking with Gbia on the telephone, Otilia goes to a rendezvous point to meet with Mr. Bebe, although he had asked Gbia that she meet him personally. Otilia heads to the Unirea hotel where Gbia has booked a room, only to be informed by an unfriendly receptionist that there is no reservation under Gbia's last name. They belong to my generation". [41] Academic Claudiu Turcu remarked that the dinner scene, where the characters look down on some careers and act as if smoking in front of one's elders is disrespectful, shows how regressive they are. [38] Scholar Florentina C. Andreescu opined the two female protagonists share emotional loyalty, while in the wake of Mr. Bebe's abuses, Otilia becomes increasingly suspicious of Adi. 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days (Cristian Mungiu, 2007 Mungiu, Cristian. Jitaru specifically cited the dinner scene, where the conversation makes much of the divide between those with university degrees and those with none. [10] Aside from reflecting the length of the fictional pregnancy, the 4-3-2 form of the title creates the impression of rushed countdown reinforcing the thriller genre aspects, Gradea wrote. After Otilia accepts a cigarette in front of Adi's parents, one of the guests starts talking about lost values and respect for elders. 3099067 [65], In its own country, it debuted at the Transilvania International Film Festival in June 2007, where it attracted long queues. [36] Anti-abortion protests comparable to those in the U.S. or Ireland did not occur in Romania until 2005, when the Orthodox Church commented on the matter. [60] Mungiu said he aimed to begin scenes, including the first, without giving the audience background information and letting viewers discern what was happening. 15 on the BBC's list of 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century. The crew dropped bags of cabbage and potatoes to create the sound effect. [7] Writing for Le Monde, Thomas Sotinel called the film excellent and cited Marinca for an intense performance. She felt "heat" in each frame, writing "we're waiting for the bomb the constant threat of imprisonment or death that defined life under Nicolae Ceaucescu". Who can tell? Gbia's reasons are never said; it can be presumed she made the decision herself, though Maierhofer wrote at times she appears "irresponsible". [62] After the festival, distribution rights for 60 countries had been sold. [11] The procedure was permitted in only extremely limited circumstances. Please enter your username or email address. [11] British Film Institute writer Ben Walters judged it "simple and rigorous, with scenes composed of only one or two shots". A woman assists her friend in arranging an illegal abortion in 1980s Romania. [12] Following the 1989 Revolution, abortion was made lawful, and subsequently unrestricted in the first 14 weeks.[20]. In 1987, two university students in an unnamed Romanian town, Otilia Mihrtescu and Gabriela "Gbia" Drgu, are roommates in a dormitory. [17] Gradea cited a conservative 10,000 estimate. [22] Aside from the anecdote, depicting the 1980s in Romania was appealing because he remembered the time, and "The attraction is for the stories that I know from that period. It made $1,198,208 in the United States and Canada, and $8,642,130 in other countries, for a worldwide total of $9,840,338. [51], The dinner scene is reminiscent of the Last Supper. [22], In one scene, the aborted fetus is visible on screen for approximately 14 seconds, the length it took for the actors to deliver the dialogue, with Mungiu opting not to edit out the shot since it "was part of the story". But as they grew up, they showed their gratitude by overthrowing and executing him. [64] That month, it also screened at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival. Inspired by an anecdote from the period and the general social historic context, it depicts the loyalty of the two friends and the struggles they face. Back-alley abortions became a way of reclaiming womens bodies. freakonomics levitt oculto afeta inesperado dubner urbanismo pondered abortion paisagismo enjoei He compared it with the films of the Dardenne brothers. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. At the college dorm, Gbia and Otilia review the items they need for the day. [32] Mungiu compared his style more to those of Milo Forman and Ji Menzel, though he said he was influenced more by certain films than by a director's general filmography. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The female characters in Mungius art film show reproductive agency. In the documentary Children of the Decree, director Florin Iepan explores Ceauescus pronatalist policies by subversively juxtaposing official propaganda images with a series of interviews with medical professionals, abortionists, and women. By what name was 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days (2007) officially released in India in English? [75][78] Roger Ebert awarded it four stars, commenting on the stupidity of the character Gbia and contrasting her to the title character of that year's Juno, but hailing the film as "a powerful film and a stark visual accomplishment". A brutal in your face look at a bleak time in history, how a leader destroyed the economy of a country and what that did to everyday life and a reminder of how far behind the rest of us Eastern Europe was before the fall of the Iron curtain and particularly Romania before the Revolution of 1989. [25] As he continued writing, he stated pushing a political point was not so much a factor in editing, as he opted not to delete potential scenes if they felt credible, asking "Would this reasonably have happened, and does it make sense to the story to keep it?

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