why are pesticides unique among toxic substances?

doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9569, 114. doi:10.1002/cbf.2826, 127. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2004.03.003, 87. Rosenstock L, Keifer M, Daniell WE, McConnell R, Claypoole K. Chronic central nervous system effects of acute organophosphate pesticide intoxication. England. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which monitors residues in food, found tested samples very rarely exceeded limits on pesticides and other chemicals, which the EPA says are calculated on reasonable certainty of no harm. Gasnier C, Dumont C, Benachour N, Clair E, Chagnon MC, Sralini GE. Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda: scientific basis for action. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol (2011) 61:17284. Alewu B, Nosiri C. Pesticides and human health. doi:10.1289/ehp.02110125, 49.

Effect of age, duration of exposure, and dose of atrazine on sexual maturation and the luteinizing hormone surge in the female Sprague-Dawley rat. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2015) 22:5793806. It acquired a strong basis in 2007 in the African village Nylni in Mali, where representatives from more than eighty countries adopted the Declaration of Nylni. According to its principles, all the people of the world have the right to choose their own national and local policies to eliminate poverty, malnutrition, and hunger, to protect their traditions and also the natural environment (137141). Current agricultural practices include the wide production and extensive use of chemicals known for their ability to cause negative health effects in humans and wildlife and to degrade the natural environment. 97. doi:10.1097/00043764-200107000-00012, 102. Kolaczinski JH, Curtis CF. Prenatal pesticide exposure and otitis media during early childhood in the PELAGIE mother-child cohort. London, Munich: CAFS, IIED, RCC (2009). Wesseling C, Keifer M, Ahlbom A, McConnell R, Moon J-D, Rosenstock L, et al. Organophosphates, which were promoted as a more ecological alternative to organochlorines (58), include a great variety of pesticides, the most common of which is glyphosate. doi:10.1006/rtph.1999.1371, 72. Environ Sci Eur (2012) 24:24. doi:10.1186/2190-4715-24-24, 161. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.06.006, 61. The editor and reviewer's affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Available from: https://www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/AB/get%20involved/take%20action/CosmeticPesticides-InformationBrief-AB.pdf, 6. Hum Pathol (1993) 24:5716. However, these safe limits may underestimate the real health risk as in the case of simultaneous exposure to two or more chemical substances, which occurs in real-life conditions and may have synergistic effects (1, 43). Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: their relevance to human health. Williams GM, Kroes R, Munro IC. 139. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorines (OCs) in various fish species from the Indus River, Pakistan: a human health risk assessment. 82. Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies. Association of in Utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Hemingway J, Ranson H. Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to organophosphates has been correlated with decreased gestational duration (69) and neurological problems occurring in children (70). doi:10.1289/ehp.8741, 45. Ray DE, Fry JR. A reassessment of the neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides. Blaznik U, Yngve A, Eren I, Hlastan Ribi C. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia. Watcharaanantapong P, Roberts RK, Lambert DM, Larson JA, Velandia M, English BC, et al. Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, and plant growth regulators are typical examples (13). Atrazine is the most known of the triazines, and it is a very widely used herbicide that has been associated with oxidative stress (103), cytotoxicity (105, 106), and dopaminergic effects (107, 108). Food Chem Toxicol (2004) 42:697706. J Toxicol Environ Health A (2015) 78:53448. Sexton K. Cumulative risk assessment: an overview of methodological approaches for evaluating combined health effects from exposure to multiple environmental stressors. doi:10.1289/ehp.6789, 70. In vivo and in vitro effects of the organochlorine pesticides DDT, TCPM, methoxychlor, and lindane on the female reproductive tract of mammals: a review. Chourasiya S, Khillare PS, Jyethi DS. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2004) 196:23546. (2013).

doi:10.1016/S0168-1699(02)00096-0, 132. doi:10.1289/ehp.9357, 44. Soloneski S, Kujawski M, Scuto A, Larramendy ML. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.10.011, 115. Reduce your exposure through food by peeling produce and trimming the fat from meat and fish (where pesticides might collect); washing and scrubbing fruits and vegetables under running water (not all pesticides can be washed off, the EPA says); and selecting food from different sources to avoid potentially high exposure to a single pesticide. It is a ubiquitous chemical substance, and it is believed that every living organism on Earth has a DDT body burden, mainly stored in the fat (48, 50). doi:10.1177/0748233714568175, 64. Earlier this month, in a later case, Monsanto was ordered to pay more than $2bn to a couple that got cancer after using its weedkiller. Surg Neurol Int (2015) 6:45. doi:10.4103/2152-7806.153876, 86. doi:10.2165/00139709-200423030-00003, 22. USDA National Wildlife Research Center Staff Publications. Nature (2014) 511:2956. Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, London SJ, Henneberger PK, Kullman GJ, Alavanja MCR, et al. Environ Health Perspect (2007) 115:98105. The underlying scientific uncertainty, the exposure of vulnerable groups and the fact that there are numerous possible mixtures reveal the real complex character of the problem (161163). J Archaeol Sci (1995) 22:70510. 164. People must be free to decide the method of production of their own food, and an important component of this decision concerns agrochemical products. There is also evidence for possible effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems of animals (115, 126, 127). Towards Democracy in Localized Food Systems. This class also includes other known pesticides, such as malathion, parathion, and dimethoate; some are known for their endocrine-disrupting potential (10, 59, 60). Osman KA. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2009.12.008, 85. Cell Biochem Funct (2012) 30:4929. Fukutake M, Takahashi M, Ishida K, Kawamura H, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. Quantification of genistein and genistin in soybeans and soybean products. doi:10.14452/MR-061-03-2009-07_8, 144. J Occup Environ Med (2001) 43:6419. Given the fact that the health effects have been extensively discussed in the current literature, this paper focuses on the major chronic health effects and recent findings regarding health effects that have been associated with exposure to common classes of chemical pesticides, i.e., organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, triazines, and neonicotinoids. A 2004 review co-authored by the National Cancer Institute concluded that epidemiological evidence clearly suggests that at current exposures pesticides adversely affect human health. Syst Biol Reprod Med (2015) 61:3743. Chronic illness as a result of low-level exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: a review of the debate. Toxicol Ind Health (1999) 15:13351. Garey J, Wolff MS. Estrogenic and antiprogestagenic activities of pyrethroid insecticides. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and non-cancer health outcomes. Bassil KL, Vakil C, Sanborn M, Cole DC, Kaur JS, Kerr KJ. doi:10.1590/S1020-49892003000800004, 59. Colosio C, Alegakis AK, Tsatsakis AM. Environ Toxicol Chem (2000) 19:224958. The EPA has oversight of all pesticides used or produced in the US and sets certain safety standards for pesticides used in food in animal feed. The most widely known organochlorine pesticide is dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, i.e., the insecticide DDT, the uncontrolled use of which raised many environmental and human health issues (2, 48, 49). Plant Soil (2002) 247:1439.

Pestic Outlook (2001) 12:2047. Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. Furthermore, it should be noted that washing and peeling cannot completely remove the residues (40). Another major ongoing controversy exists between the advocates and the opponents of genetically engineered pesticide-resistant plants, regarding not only their safety (29, 156, 157) but also their impact on pesticide use (158160). Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011) 8:22652203. p. 4771. Agricultural exposure to carbamate pesticides and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma. Aquat Toxicol (2001) 52:112. The effect of exposure to atrazine on dopaminergic development in pubertal male SD rats. doi:10.1006/taap.1998.9999, 100. doi:10.1289/ehp.971051222, 105. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nylni have been taken. 75. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2012.06.009. Comparison of pesticides in eight U.S. urban streams. Robert PC. This variability includes yield, field, soil, and crop variability but also factors, such as wind damage or flooding. Glyphosate can display endocrine-disrupting activity (80, 82), affect human erythrocytes in vitro (83), and promote carcinogenicity in mouse skin (84). Roeleveld N, Bretveld R. The impact of pesticides on male fertility. Swanson NL, Leu A, Abrahamson J, Wallet B.

Mnif W, Hassine AIH, Bouaziz A, Bartegi A, Thomas O, Roig B. This class of pesticides has been associated with effects on the function of cholinesterase enzymes (58), decrease in insulin secretion, disruption of normal cellular metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats (54), and also with genotoxic effects (61) and effects on mitochondrial function, causing cellular oxidative stress and problems to the nervous and endocrine systems (54). Holt-Gimnez E. From food crisis to food sovereignty.

Agricultural use of organophosphate pesticides and the risk of non-Hodgkins lymphoma among male farmers (United States). Bradberry SM, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA. Climate Change and Agriculture Worldwide. Moore A, Waring CP. Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. the first sixteen years. Ecotoxicology (2013) 22:25162. All have been linked to serious health or environmental consequences. Am J Respir Crit Care Med (2008) 177:118.

Food Chem (2004) 86:26974. doi:10.1590/S2197-00252013000300001, 152. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2012.02.001, 42. Bjrling-Poulsen M, Andersen HR, Grandjean P. Potential developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides used in Europe. doi:10.1002/tox.22178, 120. Many of the pesticides have been associated with health and environmental issues (1, 2, 712), and the agricultural use of certain pesticides has been abandoned (2). Rosset P. Food sovereignty and the contemporary food crisis. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. Rev Panam Salud Publica (2003) 14:17185. doi:10.1002/csr.97, 36. Chemosphere (2016) 144:117792. doi:10.1136/oemed-2015-103039, 46. Residues of pesticides can be found in a great variety of everyday foods and beverages, including for instance cooked meals, water, wine, fruit juices, refreshments, and animal feeds (3239). doi:10.1136/jech.2005.039677, 20.

Clair , Mesnage R, Travert C, Sralini G-. Moreover, in vitro studies have revealed the ability of carbamate pesticides to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in hamster ovarian cells (94) and to induce apoptosis and necrosis in human immune cells (95), natural killer cells (96, 97), and also apoptosis in T lymphocytes (98). *Correspondence: Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati, aspis@ath.forthnet.gr, Toxicity of pesticides on health and environment, View all Nag SK, Raikwar MK. (2014). 12 Articles, This article is part of the Research Topic, Urgent Need toward Cleaner and Safer Agricultural Practices, http://www.intechopen.com/books/pesticides-in-the-modern-world-effects-of-pesticides-exposure/pesticide-and-human-health, http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/pesticides/pestwhatrhow.htm, https://www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/AB/get%20involved/take%20action/CosmeticPesticides-InformationBrief-AB.pdf, http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdm_usdanwrc/589, http://www.intechopen.com/books/pesticides-in-the-modern-world-effects-of-pesticides-exposure/pesticides-and-human-health, http://www.marcozullo.it/wp-content/uploads/Malles-Venosta-Referendum.pdf, http://www.unep.org/dewa/agassessment/reports/IAASTD/EN/Agriculture%20at%20a%20Crossroads_Global%20Report%20(English).pdf, http://unctad.org/en/docs/ditcted200715_en.pdf, http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/cap-overview/2012_en.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Liu XM, Shao JZ, Xiang LX, Chen XY. Jurewicz J, Radwan M, Wielgomas B, Sobala W, Piskunowicz M, Radwan P, et al. Neonicotinoid pesticides, such as imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and guadipyr, are relatively new and also the most extensively used insecticides (120) that were promoted for their low risk for non-target organisms (121). Eskenazi B, Harley K, Bradman A, Fenster L, Wolff M, Engel S, et al. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels. J Appl Toxicol (2000) 20:618. Jeschke P, Nauen R. Neonicotinoids from zero to hero in insecticide chemistry. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.05.012, 74. 98.

Furthermore, there are other less known applications of these chemical substances, such as in pet shampoos (4), building materials, and boat bottoms in order to eliminate or prevent the presence of unwanted species (6). Health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticide exposure through dietary intake of vegetables grown in the periurban sites of Delhi, India. Agr Food Secur (2014) 3:11. doi:10.1186/2048-7010-3-11. Dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, dicofol, and methoxychlor are some other organochlorines used as pesticides. Agroecology, small farms, and food sovereignty. Pesticide exposure and womens health. Pimentel D, Burgess M. Environmental and economic benefits of reducing pesticide use. The EPA says its regulatory actions and improvements in science over recent years has led to an increase in the use of safer, less toxic pesticides [and an] overall trend of reduced risk from pesticides. Furthermore, the overproduction of food, export-oriented monocultures, the demand for cheap labor, and the other characteristics of industrialization have clearly failed to solve the problems of hunger and malnutrition. Food Chem Toxicol (1996) 34:45761. Development (2001) 44:2933. Environ Health Perspect (2005) 113:12336.

doi:10.1016/j.etap.2005.11.003, 90. de Liz Oliveira Cavalli VL, Cattani D, Heinz Rieg CE, Pierozan P, Zanatta L, Benedetti Parisotto E, et al. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2013.04.006, 163. doi:10.3322/canjclin.52.5.301, 57. Systematic review and implications for family doctors. Damgaard IN, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J, Virtanen HE, Shen H, Schramm KW, et al. Fry DM. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3282fcc334, 27. p. 12739. (2013). Freire C, Koifman RJ, Koifman S. Hematological and hepatic alterations in brazilian population heavily exposed to organochlorine pesticides. Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. Mol Biosyst (2015) 11:291524. Residues are in up to 70% of produce sold in the US, according to the latest annual analysis of US Department of Agriculture (USDA) data by the health advocacy group Environmental Working Group. Toxicol In Vitro (2015) 29:83444. Explained: the toxic threat in everyday products, from toys to plastic, Original reporting and incisive analysis, direct from the Guardian every morning. Mink PJ, Mandel JS, Lundin JI, Sceurman BK.

IAASTD Global Report. Lancet (1991) 338:2237. Denison MS, Phelan D, Winter GM, Ziccardi MH. Kettles MK, Browning SR, Prince TS, Horstman SW. Triazine herbicide exposure and breast cancer incidence: an ecologic study of Kentucky counties.

Gunnell D, Eddleston M, Phillips MR, Konradsen F. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review. Available from: http://www.marcozullo.it/wp-content/uploads/Malles-Venosta-Referendum.pdf, 137. doi:10.1016/0015-6264(68)90080-1, 33. Moreover, it was found that there is a possible statistical relationship between triazine herbicides and breast cancer incidence (104).

Shop at your local farmers market and ask about pesticide practices straight from the source, or you can go even further if you have a garden and grow your own. In: Pimentel D, Peshin R, editors. Hedberg D, Wallin M. Effects of Roundup and glyphosate formulations on intracellular transport, microtubules and actin filaments in Xenopus laevis melanophores. Pestic Biochem Physiol (2004) 79:5863. Sralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R, Gress S, Defarge N, Malatesta M, et al. Public Health 4:148. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00148, Received: 27 January 2016; Accepted: 04 July 2016; Introduction to Pesticides and Wildlife. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03274, 51. What do consumers want to know? Kwiatkowska M, Huras B, Bukowska B. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that carbaryl, which belongs to the category of carbamate pesticides, can act as a ligand for the hepatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a transcription factor involved in the mechanism of dioxin toxicity (99). A concept as such is climate-smart agriculture that seeks solutions in the new context of climate change (152, 153). Exposure of mice to atrazine and its metabolite diaminochlorotriazine elicits oxidative stress and endocrine disruption. doi:10.1002/ps.4162, 124. J Agric Food Chem (2015) 63:93418. Of the more than 40,000 chemicals used in consumer products in the US, according to the EPA, less than 1% have been rigorously tested for human safety. Tiemann U. In: Stoytcheva M, editor. Front. Carbamates: a study on genotoxic, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effects induced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Johnston JJ. Canadian Cancer Society. Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances that are mainly used in agriculture or in public health protection programs in order to protect plants from pests, weeds or diseases, and humans from vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, and schistosomiasis. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol (2015) 104:20417. doi:10.1023/A:1021171514148, 131. Despite the difficulties of establishing an innovative concept, the transition to a new cleaner and safer agricultural model is necessary. In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Robinson T, Ali U, Mahmood A, Chaudhry MJ, Li J, Zhang G, et al. 14. Environ Monit Assess (2011) 174:32735. 9. The combination of substances with probably carcinogenic or endocrine-disrupting effects may produce unknown adverse health effects. Pandey SP, Mohanty B. doi:10.1038/nature13642, 12. doi:10.4161/gmcr.26532, 158. doi:10.2478/intox-2013-0026, 93. Pesticides in the Modern World Effects of Pesticides Exposure.
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