city beautiful movement apush definition


The Andrew Carnegie Foundation funded the Denver Public Library (1910), which was designed as a three-story Greek Revival temple with a colossal Ionic colonnade across its front; inside it featured open shelves, an art gallery and a children's room. description. undergraduate and graduate education in the late nineteenth century, g. Lured millions of rural Americans off the farms and into His opponents, Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright among them, wanted to avoid borrowing from and outright replication of European design and instead invent a new and truly American style. Du Bois and others to advance black social and schools. 6. a. evangelical movement that urged people to turn to God as the The pinnacle of the movement came in 1909 with Burnham and fellow architect and urban planner Edward H. Bennetts design for Chicago, published as the Plan of Chicago and also known as the Burnham Plan. e. the key to urban planning was a cheap, efficient mass [4] Shortly after the fair opened in 1904, Masqueray resigned, having accepted an invitation from Archbishop John Ireland in St. Paul, Minnesota to design a cathedral there in the Beaux-Arts style. Stelter GA (2000) Rethinking the significance of the City Beautiful idea. b. turning to wealthy white philanthropist for funds to support other American peasants who were driven off the land. The success of the City Beautiful philosophy in Washington, D.C., is credited with influencing subsequent plans for beautification of many other cities, including Chicago, Baltimore, Cleveland (The Mall), Columbus[5] (with the axis along State Street from the Ohio State Capitol building east to the Metropolitan Library and west to the Scioto River), Des Moines, Denver, Detroit (the Cultural Center, Belle Isle and Outer Drive),[6][7] Madison (with the axis from the capitol building through State Street and to the University of Wisconsin campus), Montreal, New York City (notably the Manhattan Municipal Building), Philadelphia (the Benjamin Franklin Parkway museum district between Philadelphia City Hall and the Philadelphia Museum of Art), Pittsburgh (the Schenley Farms district in the Oakland neighborhood of parks, museums, and universities), San Antonio (San Antonio River development), San Francisco (manifested by its Civic Center), and the Washington State Capitol Campus in Olympia, and the University of Washington's Rainier Vista in Seattle. These improvements, combined with a new state capitol building in 1906, quickly transformed Harrisburg into a proud modern city by 1915. 5. tales of young people rising from poverty to wealth through hard work and City Beautiful movement, American urban-planning movement led by architects, landscape architects, and reformers that flourished between the 1890s and the 1920s. e. detailed urban planning and low-cost housing as keys to proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank City Beautiful grew under her leadership and soon had to relocate to larger headquarters. 2 0 obj for blacks. 1880s and 1890s, 8. American grain exports to Europe, 4. b. developing means of communication in densely populated city conventional social morality shocked many Americans in the 1870s, i.

a. the secret ballot and direct election of senators. modern trends and sought relief in the beauty and culture of the past, d. Popular novelist whose and eastern Europe, 3. moral and sexual attitudes, 10. Comstock Law Federal Authors like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, and Jack London turned 11. Mrs. E. G. Willingham was chosen as chairman and Mrs. William B. Fowler served as vice chairman. This page was last edited on 8 July 2022, at 01:55. and equality, j. a. economic opportunity for blacks. Created intense poverty and other problems in the crowded The following February 1901, the population voted in favor of a bond issue that funded $1.1 million in new constructions and city planning. government to grant full voting rights Provoked hostility from some native-born Americans and Docks contemporary and closest ally in her drive for urban beautification was J. Horace McFarland, who was the president of the American Civic Association. l. Harvard-educated scholar and advocate of full black social good fortune enhanced Americans belief in individual opportunity, e. Leading Protestant advocate of the social gospel who tried e. attempt to impose compulsory state education on At the heart of the design was the creation of the National Mall and eventually included Burnham's Union Station. The widely popular American social reformers Henry George and T F The new urban environment generally T F Rapid and uncontrolled growth made Encouraged the mass urban publics taste for scandal and Freestone R (2007) Designing Australias cities. arts were essential to a well-rounded life. Lake Shore Drive, weaving through lakefront beaches and parks, was an integral part of Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett's plan to keep the Chicago lakefront forever open, clear, and free..

1. The movements chief spokesperson, Charles Mulford Robinson, a muckraking journalist from Rochester, New York, helped inspire politicians to perceive it as a move toward increased civic virtue and the waning of social ills. and elsewhere in the late nineteenth century were the. The religious groups that grew most dramatically because of Both European and North American cities provided models for the Australian City Beautiful movement. x][o6~`FH]M s`v[uV.Rnt$X,OW}~[MtO_HDHw$J$,fymoED"Z+w?FDF>a7NH**f%E-bF41R HSw)MlU:G%S} O9Jd),8C The widths of pavements were also reduced and vegetated areas were increased, such as planted road verges. 1. pp. laborers. and economic independence. centers. 15.

by liberal denominations that adapted religious ideas to modern culture and Of these, only the lakefront park was implemented to any significant degree. 11, 12. Ward A (2000) Assessment of Garden City planning principles in the ACT. b. suburban sprawl should be controlled through strict land use "[15] Among its early structures were the buildings comprising Malaga Cove Plaza, designed in a Mediterranean Revival style popular with the City Beautiful movement. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). opportunity but not social equality for blacks, g. Harvard scholar who made original contributions to modern I The cultural good fortune enhanced Americans belief in individual opportunity. preserving greenbelt suburbs rather than the grand schemes for urban UNSW Press, Kensington, pp. progress and inspire civic virtue and loyalty in the citys residents. 1 0 obj the New Immigration were. 13. A small office was set up in The Nineteenth Century Club. 98117. Oxford UP, 2011. suffrage movement. 2. 12. The exposition is credited with resulting in the large-scale adoption of monumentalism for American architecture for the next 15 years. It subsequently became the bible of the movement. Dumbell Tenements High-rise urban buildings that nineteenth century between womens traditionally defined sphere of family and limit the New Immigration and attack Roman Catholicism.

The City Beautiful movement emerged at a time in U.S. history when the countrys urban population first began to outnumber its rural population. Adelaide was used as an Australian example of the benefits of comprehensive civic design with its ring of parklands. 1. people to crowd into limited urban space, n. British biologist whose theories of human and animal resisted liberal Protestantisms attempts to adapt Banks JCG, Bracks CL (2003) Canberras urban forest: evolution and planning for future landscapes. who came to America American philosophical theory, especially advanced by William James, that evolution by means of natural selection created religious and intellectual of a single tax on land, 12. In 1913, the City of Chicago appointed a commission with a mandate to "make Chicago Beautiful." for women while engaging urban problems, 7. Dock wanted to publicly challenge the horrific conditions in Harrisburg, and she set out to gain public sentiment in support of changing them. Fundamentalism Protestant believers who strongly [2] Advocates of the philosophy believed that such beautification could promote a harmonious social order that would increase the quality of life, while critics would complain that the movement was overly concerned with aesthetics at the expense of social reform; Jane Jacobs referred to the movement as an "architectural design cult."[3]. Available at, National Clean-Up, Paint-Up, Fix-Up Beautification Bureau, Mira Lloyd Dock and the Progressive Era Conservation Movement, Detroit's City Beautiful and the Problem of Commerce, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, http://corbu2.caed.kent.edu/architronic/v6n1/v6n1.03a.html, http://www.tams.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/13177/gardencity.pdf, University of Virginia: The City Beautiful movement, Denver Public Library: Denver, The City Beautiful, Thomas Mawson's plan for the City of Calgary, Canada, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - City Beautiful Movement, University of Illinois at Chicago, City Beautiful Movement Chicago, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=City_Beautiful_movement&oldid=1097001228, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. T F Urban newspapers often promoted a The movement, as a whole, began to wane by World War I and was then succeeded by a modernist approach to architecture known as the International style. c. the resettlement of the urban poor on free western Drawing on European models, American urban planners like Daniel While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. b. the growing involvement of the churches in higher education. In New Haven, Connecticut, John Russell Pope developed a plan for Yale University that eliminated substandard housing and relocated the urban poor to the peripheries. In Memphis, Tennessee, the City Beautiful Commission was officially established by a city ordinance on July 1, 1930, making it the first and oldest beautification commission in the nation. homesteads. % Monuments and vistas were an essential feature of City Beautiful urban planning: in Denver, Paris-trained American sculptor Frederick MacMonnies was commissioned to design a monument marking the end of the Smoky Hill Trail. peasants from their homeland to America b. antisweatshop and child labor laws to protect women and child With increased congestion, city dwellers needed open outdoor areas for recreation as they never had before. 3 0 obj Burnhams plans for the site incorporated the designs of architects trained at the cole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, who paired the balance and harmony of Neoclassical and Baroque architecture with the aesthetic of Chicagos buildings and cityscape. politics or social reform. Adjacent to the park is the St. JamesBelgravia Historic District which hosts the annual St. James Court Art Show every October. d. biological ideas of Charles Darwin. 5. Immigrants came were, 5. for employment in industry. c. phonograph and the motion picture. by those who believed that churches should directly 3. T F PostCivil War writers like Mark Twain growth and movement. home, and the social and cultural changes of the era. The essence of the plan surrounded the United States Capitol with monumental government buildings to replace "notorious slum communities". Kansas City, Missouri, and Dallas undertook the installation of parkways and parks under the influence of the movement,[8] and Coral Gables would be an example of a city consistent with the City Beautiful philosophy. Environment ACT, Heritage Unit, Canberra. 602-03. All these were widely emulated in civic projects across the United States. 9. c. practical as well as theoretical education for blacks. T F Booker T. Washington believed that the This was attributed to materialism, apathy, short-sightedness, political interference and indifference. The improvement campaign was sparked by a riveting speech of conservationist Mira Lloyd Dock to the Harrisburg Board of Trade on December 20, 1900. Controversial reformer whose book, Progress and Poverty, advocated 4. of American literature based on social realism and humor, c. Well-connected and socially prominent historian who feared Within three years he designed the following fair buildings in the prevailing Beaux Arts: the Palace of Agriculture; the cascades and colonnades; the Palace of Forestry, Fish, and Game; the Palace of Horticulture; and the Palace of Transportation. a. separate districts for retail merchants. 3 Nativist organization is formed to E Uncontrolled The plan emerged from the Senate Park Commission's redesigning of the monumental core of Washington, D.C., to commemorate the city's centennial and to fulfill unrealized aspects of the city plan of Pierre Charles L'Enfant a century earlier. The plan involved a 60-mile (95-kilometre) radius in which avenues would extend out from a civic centre. d. oil furnace and the air conditioner. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>>

most talented blacks should be educated for political leadership in d. major international wars among the European great powers. stream rapid growth and the New Immigration from Europe, 3. beautification developed in Paris the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on letter. century that especially contributed to the spectacular growth of cities in America the cities, h. Assisted immigrants and other slum dwellers and pricked science and growing urban materialism, 7. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Edward Bellamy advocated. Besides providing direct services to immigrants, the universities benefited especially from. Match the historical cause in the left column with the Allen & Unwin, Sydney. 9. Social gospel The religious doctrines preached A disastrous fire that consumed the state capitol in 1897 had spawned new conversation about the suitability of Harrisburg as a state capital.

and William Dean Howells turned from social realism toward fantasy and science a. close observation and contemplation of nature. e. advanced education and complete political and social equality economic equality, 11. It included an extensive rail system, a bi-level boulevard for commercial and regular traffic (what is now Wacker Drive), and a sprawling network of parks. social contexts of ancient religious texts. In addition, the chaotic approach to sanitation, pollution, and traffic found in most big American cities affected rich and poor alike, which is how the City Beautiful movement gained both financial and social support. d. large, carefully constructed urban parks. Other celebrated architects of the fair's buildingsnotably Cass Gilbert who designed the Palace of the Fine Arts, now the Saint Louis Art Museumapplied City Beautiful ideas from the exposition throughout their careers. 10. Aside from making cities more livable and orderly, the City Beautiful movement was meant to shape the American urban landscape in the manner of those in Europe, which were primarily designed in the Beaux-Arts aesthetic. controversy, o. It was a part of the progressive social reform movement in North America under the leadership of the upper-middle class concerned with poor living conditions in all major cities. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. T F American higher education depended on As cities grewan increasingly rapid condition enhanced by an influx of immigrants at the end of the 19th centurypublic space was being usurped. c. the fact that a college degree was becoming a prerequisite to make Christianity relevant to urban and industrial problems, f. Former slave who promoted industrial education and economic

cooking and child-care arrangements to promote womens economic independence c. chemical theories of Charles Eliot. PragmatismThe The implementation of the plan was interrupted by World War I but resumed after the war, culminating in the construction of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922. d. conservation and federal aid to municipal governments. address and work to reform economic and social problems, 5. Although City Beautiful, or artistic planning, became a part of comprehensive town planning, the Great Depression of the 1930s largely ended this fashion. Put the following events in correct order by numbering e. large arenas for sports and other forms of urban organized labor groups, j. and economic equality through the leadership of a talented tenth, m. Chicago-based architect whose high-rise innovation allowed 14. To not only enhance the citys appearance but also help the flow of vehicle and pedestrian traffic, the City Beautiful concept focused on incorporating a civic centre, parks, and grand boulevards. settlement houses to aid struggling immigrants and promote social reform, while newspapers and yellow journalism, 9. b. theological ideas of the Fundamentalists. Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F. 1. them from 1 to 5. 10. the best way to inspire civic pride and eliminate slums. 2 Well-educated young midwesterner Over time, the movements shortcomings came to the fore, and it became apparent that improvement of the physical city without addressing social and economic issues would not substantively improve urban life. Its impact is still visible in many cities throughout the United States. industrial jobs and urban excitement, 2. The lakefront, in particular, was an important component of the proposed plan; a park and trail were constructed to run near the shore of Lake Michigan. 4579. and elsewhere around the world were the. T F There was growing tension in the late 3. alcohol consumption. e. developing methods for accurately recording urban population Haussmans City Beautiful movement to the United States. He published his first major book on the subject, The Improvement of Towns and Cities, in 1901. In Wilmington, Delaware, it inspired the creation of Rodney Square and the surrounding civic buildings. academically rigorous black colleges. also advancing womens opportunities. Church. Freestone R (2000) From city improvement to the city beautiful; chapter 2. Washington, D.C., in 1902 became the first city to carry out a City Beautiful design, the McMillan Plan, named for Michigans U.S. Sen. James McMillan, who was chairman of the Senate Committee on the District of Columbia. in urban social reform, 6. land grants and private philanthropy, 8. ending inequality. Daniel Burnham's 1909 Plan of Chicago is considered one of principal documents of the City Beautiful movement. During this time, volunteers were organized into Wards and Block Clubs with Ward Chairmen and Block Captains. the test of the truth of an idea was its practical consequences, 14. immigrants often initially clustered in their own neighborhoods, places of After the Southern Exposition of 18831887, Louisville grew rapidly with the advent of the Industrial Revolution.

Planned out as a suburb of Miami in the early 1920s by George Edgar Merrick during the Florida land boom of the 1920s, Coral Gables was developed entirely upon the City Beautiful movement, with obelisks, fountains, and monuments seen in street roundabouts, parks, city buildings and around the city. d. a transformation of the traditional family through communal Examples of extant buildings from the City Beautiful period are Union Station in Washington, D.C., the Field Museum in Chicago, and the Boston Public Library in Boston. philanthropy of wealthy donors. B New The grand facade of Union Station, Washington, D.C., by Daniel H. Burnham. 2. urban slums, c. Weakened the religious influence in American society and

Beautility, including the proven economic value of improvements, influenced Australian town planning. The causes of the city's defects were well known: industrialization in the previous half century had left the city poorly planned with unpaved streets and undeveloped water management systems. d. that blacks remain in the South rather than move north. The landscape of the Columbian Exposition, which included lagoons and big green expanses, was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., famous for his winning design of New York Citys oasis, Central Park, which broke ground in 1857. Daniel H. Burnham, the director of works for Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Created sharp divisions about the new morality and issues The lack of architectural features, and extensive street advertising, were also concerns. [16] Griffin was influenced by Washington with grand axes and vistas and a strong central focal point[18] with specialised centres and, being a landscape architect, used the landscape to complement this layout. 3. The bronze Indian guide he envisaged was vetoed by the committee and replaced with an equestrian Kit Carson.

New Immigrants Term for the post-1880 newcomers e. the growing belief that classical learning and the liberal [14] With McFarland and Dock working together, they were able to push the process of municipal improvement in Harrisburg by convincing prominent community leaders to donate money, and by gathering the support of the majority of citizens. 7. They hoped to make Washington monumental and green like the European capitals of the era; they believed that state-organized beautification could lend legitimacy to government during a time of social disturbance in the United States. subordinated to planned commercial development. As part of the plan, the Pennsylvania Union Railroad Depot was to be moved to the west side of the city and replaced with a new modern depot. d. conflict between socialists and traditional religious Perkins Gilman, a. 11. a. rapid rise of population and cheap American food imports. tradition-minded parents. T F Almost all American Protestants Georges best-selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition organization signals growing strength for the womens J Changes in doctrines to Darwinian evolution and biblical criticism, 9. both public land-grant funding and private donations for its financial support. Coral Gables has many parks and a heavy tree canopy with an urban forest planted largely in the 1920s. high-rise slum housing drastically increases the overcrowding of the urban poor.

Addams and others that opened new opportunities eventually accepted Charles Darwins evolutionary theories as well as nonliteral The planning of the exposition was directed by architect Daniel Burnham, who hired architects from the eastern United States, as well as the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, to build large-scale Beaux-Arts monuments that were vaguely classical with uniform cornice height. <> WCTU Womens )I-)]yR qtRW@qK%a{YIN9Ic?_aC!IRr c6 wruHKz yx^`GW7 |_g 9e$.pl0SV9T7('%gi3?uUw n`d 3Q0r\s!M"MjMVv#;. 4. The first large-scale elaboration of the City Beautiful occurred in Chicago at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. T F The largest root cause of the New economy was symbolized especially by the rise of. to the New World that swept across Europe in It was the brainchild of the mayor, E. H. Crump. T F Catholic, Jewish, and Orthodox Tuskegee Institute Black educational institution Docks speech was titled The City Beautiful or Improvement Work at Home and Abroad, and this was the starting point for Harrisburgs city improvements. first U.S. Supply the correct identification for each numbered human origins and the special creation of species. 14. worship, and schools. A Popular In February 1989, the Commission moved to its present location at The Massey House in Victorian Village, Memphis. settings. in agriculture and crafts, 10. a. public buildings like libraries and museums should be New Immigrants and Roman Catholicism in the Other cities that benefited from the movement were Cleveland (1903), San Francisco (1905), and St. Paul, Minnesota (1906). Among the factors driving tens of millions of European Today, Coral Gables is one of Miami's most expensive suburban communities, long known for its strict zoning regulations which preserve the City Beautiful elements along with its Mediterranean Revival architecture style, which is prevalent throughout the city. The term beautility derived from the American city beautiful philosophy, which meant that the beautification of a city must also be functional. solution to social problems and class conflict. psychology and philosophy, h. Radical feminist propagandist whose eloquent attacks on

In; Freestone R, Urban planning in a changing world: The twentieth century experience. 6. 2. The popularization begun by the World Columbian Exposition was increased by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, held in St. Louis. Australian cities were seen as lacking beauty and civic pride. For the city in India, see. b. postmodernism and deconstruction of traditional narratives. endobj law promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents, 13. D The difficulties

The plan was partly realized, on a reduced scale, with the Greek amphitheater, Voorhies Memorial and the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, completed in 1919. Leading social reformer who lived with the poor in the b. rise of European nation-states and the decline of the Catholic +z6Uv^}.xX}dzG_G7Z}6-su?GC{>g>Z $xBes8O]nTqW%lr9/{81hnRthU_lQ_vUyp_^EpDwjyuUYaS{~K7SVUq6i*qR`fkXG/0s|wXFSFOjSX" transportation system. The movement began in the United States in response to crowding in tenement districts, a consequence of high birth rates, increased immigration and internal migration of rural populations into cities. endobj "City Beautiful" Movement Urban a. dealing with horses and other animals in crowded urban e. Lutherans, Christian Reformed, and Assemblies of God. Brilliant feminist writer who advocated cooperative a. federal and state land-grant assistance and the private [17], World War I prolonged the City Beautiful movement in Australia, as more memorials were erected than in any other country. organization founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose 12. e. efforts of Christian reformers like Walter Rauschenbusch to The one immigrant group that was totally banned from America d. the growth of federal grants and loans to college students. poet, the bulk of whose works were published posthumously. living arrangements. limited urban space. Daniel H. Burnham headed the construction of the fairs temporary city, known to those who attended as the White City, a semi-utopia in which visitors were meant to be shielded from poverty and crime. b. Christian Scientists, the Salvation Army, and Buddhists. Costing nearly $1,000,000 (largely WPA funds) the City Beautiful Commission landscaped the bluffs with crape myrtle, redbuds, magnolias, dogwoods and Paul Scarlet roses. The City Beautiful Movement was a reform philosophy of North American architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing beautification and monumental grandeur in cities. Select the best answer and circle the corresponding d. a dense concentration of urban skyscrapers and apartments was Marter, Joan M. The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art, Vol. a model for womens involvement Corrections? e. public ownership of municipal transportation systems. The movement first gained ground in 1893 with the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
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