when was nineveh discovered


[45] The ruins of Kuyunjiq, Nimrud, Karamlesh and Khorsabad form the four corners of an irregular quadrilateral. Nineveh was the flourishing capital of the Assyrian Empire[36] and was the home of King Sennacherib, King of Assyria, during the Biblical reign of King Hezekiah () and the lifetime of Judean prophet Isaiah (). At this time Nineveh was still an autonomous city-state. The work of exploration was carried on by Hormuzd Rassam (an Assyrian), George Smith and others, and a vast treasury of specimens of Assyria was incrementally exhumed for European museums. There is evidence of syncretic Hellenistic cults. Niebuhr wrote afterwards that "I did not learn that I was at so remarkable a spot, till near the river. At this time, the total area of Nineveh comprised about 7 square kilometres (1,730 acres), and fifteen great gates penetrated its walls. It was contemporary and had a similar function to Habuba Kabira on the Euphrates. By the 2nd century AD there were Christians present and by 554 it was a bishopric of the Church of the East. For the most part, these digs focused on Tell Nebi Yunus. When Esarhaddon died on campaign in Egypt his mother Zakutu ruled briefly as queen until she legitimized the succession of his son Ashurbanipal as the new king. Aramaic nuna, "fish"). [25] The library of Ashurbanipal may still have been in use until around the time of Alexander the Great. Ninevite 5 pottery is roughly contemporary to the Early Transcaucasian culture ware, and the Jemdet Nasr period ware. World History Encyclopedia is a non-profit organization. During the Neo-Assyrian Empire, particularly from the time of Ashurnasirpal II (ruled 883859BC) onward, there was considerable architectural expansion. Nineveh's repentance and salvation from evil can be found in the Hebrew Tanakh (known to Christians as the Old Testament), and referred to in the Christian New Testament[48] and Muslim Quran. "Ninevites" redirects here. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Submitted by Joshua J. The Assyrians emerged from the period intact, however, and their empire grew under the reign of Tiglath Pileser I (r. c. 1115-1076 BCE). This engagement brought the region under Byzantine control until the Muslim conquest of 637 CE. R. Campbell Thompson and M. E. L. Mallowan, "The British Museum excavations at Nineveh 193132". Mary Harrsch (Photographed at the the Univ. [20] He later wrote about a battle in Lachish: "And Hezekiah of Judah who had not submitted to my yokehim I shut up in Jerusalem his royal city like a caged bird. Menko Vlaardingerbroek (2004), "The Founding of Nineveh and Babylon in Greek Historiography". By far, the greatest threat to Nineveh has been purposeful human actions by ISIL, which first occupied the area in the mid-2010s. According to this regional chronology, 'Ninevite 5' is equivalent to the Early Jezirah III period.[16]. Nineveh is mentioned in the Bible, most notably in The Book of Jonah, where it is associated with sin and vice. However, no such library was ever found: most likely, it had been destroyed by the activities of later residents.

The Babylonian Chronicle Concerning the Fall of Nineveh records that Nineveh was "turned into mounds and heaps", but this is literary hyperbole. Photographs of the chambers made in 2003 show that many of the fine relief sculptures there have been reduced to piles of rubble. There are also 3,000 metres (9,843ft) of stone Assyrian palace reliefs, that include pictorial records documenting every construction step including carving the statues and transporting them on a barge. The Book of Jonah, set in the days of the Assyrian Empire, describes it[43][44] as an "exceedingly great city of three days' journey in breadth", whose population at that time is given as "more than 120,000". The goddess's statue was sent to Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt in the 14th century BC, by orders of the king of Mitanni. Under the Sasanian Empire, Nineveh was not an administrative centre. Although the region was inhabited since the Neolithic Period and civilization established by c. 6000 BCE, the first people known to live there were the Hatti. The ruins of Nineveh lay buried until they were uncovered and excavated by Austin Henry Layard in 1846 and 1847 CE. Palace after palace was discovered, with their decorations and their sculptured slabs, revealing the life and manners of this ancient people, their arts of war and peace, the forms of their religion, the style of their architecture, and the magnificence of their monarchs.[59][60]. [contradictory], The city was actively resettled under the Seleucid Empire. The walls on top, made out of mud brick, were an additional 20 metres (66ft) tall. The area was settled as early as 6000 BCE and, by 3000 BCE, had become an important religious centre for worship of the goddess Ishtar.

The complete destruction of Nineveh has traditionally been seen as confirmed by the Hebrew Book of Ezekiel and the Greek Retreat of the Ten Thousand of Xenophon (d.354BC). [41] In fulfillment of prophecy, God made "an utter end of the place". Book of Genesis 10:11 says "Nimrod", possibly meaning Sargon I, built Nineveh. Its upper layers have been extensively excavated, and several Neo-Assyrian palaces and temples have been found there. (2011, March 06).

(27). Military incursions by the Persians, Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians began in earnest in 625 BCE and the already weakened Neo-Assyrian Empire could not hold off a full-scale invasion for very long. The excavations started again in 1927, under the direction of Campbell Thompson, who had taken part in King's expeditions. It exists as a narrow band from the Syrian coast to the Zagros mountains.

The city was never again a political or administrative centre, but by Late Antiquity it was the seat of a Christian bishop. 295316, 2005. Sir Walter Raleigh's notion that Nimrod built Nineveh, and the cities in Genesis 10:1112, has also been refuted by scholars. Atherstone's friend, the artist John Martin, created a painting of the same name inspired by the poem. In 5000 BC, Nineveh transitioned from a Halaf village to an Ubaid village.

The ailing Mosul Dam is a persistent threat to Nineveh as well as the city of Mosul. (231). In total, the foundation is made of roughly 2,680,000 cubic metres (3,505,308cuyd) of brick (approximately 160million bricks). One picture shows 44 men towing a colossal statue. The stone retaining wall had projecting stone towers spaced about every 18 metres (59ft). World History Encyclopedia. The city was best known through the Christian era (and still is) by the central role it plays in the biblical Book of Jonah. The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization, A History of the Ancient Near East ca. Cuneiform Synonyms ListOsama Shukir Muhammed Amin (Copyright). Papers of the 49th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Part Two, pp. After Sennacherib, his son Esarhaddon (r. 681-669 BCE) took the throne and continued his father's building projects. After Hammurabi's death, his kingdom fell apart and Nineveh was taken by the Assyrians under Adasi (r. c. 1726-1691 BCE). Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. Their efforts concentrated on the site of the Temple of Nabu, the god of writing, where another cuneiform library was supposed to exist. Large amounts of Assyrian sculpture and other artifacts have been excavated there, and are now located in museums around the world. The greatness of Nineveh was short-lived. The mound of Kuyunjiq was excavated again by the archaeologists of the British Museum, led by Leonard William King, at the beginning of the 20th century. [38][39] Its end was strange, sudden, and tragic. The carving shows three men directing the operation while standing on the Colossus. The Akkadians also assoiciated the city with Ishtar and held it, and the region at large, until the fall of their empire in c. 2083 BCE. God sent Jonah to preach to the Ninevites of their coming destruction, and they fasted and repented because of this. Sennacherib was the son of King Sargon II (r. 722-705 BCE) who had built his own capital, Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon") between 717-706 BCE. When Shamashi Adad I died, the region was conquered by the Amorites under King Hammurabi of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 BCE). He has had one hundred prisoners of war executed. [7] These toponyms refer to the areas to the North and South of the Khosr stream, respectively: Kuyunjiq is the name for the whole northern sector enclosed by the city walls and is dominated by the large (35 ha) mound of Tell Kuyunjiq, while Nab (or more commonly Nebi) Yunus is the southern sector around of the mosque of Prophet Yunus/Jonah, which is located on Tell Nebi Yunus. Further work by Campbell Thompson and George Smith, among others up to the present day, has revealed the magnificent scope of this once great city. A deep sounding by Max Mallowan revealed evidence of habitation as early as the 6th millennium BC. It came directly under Assyrian rule during the reign of Shamashi Adad I (r. 1813-1791 BCE) but was most fully developed during the Neo-Assyrian Empire (912-612 BCE) by Sennacherib (r. 705-681 BCE), among the most famous Assyrian kings and closely associated with the city. [81][82] Just a few days after the destruction of the museum pieces, they demolished remains at major UNESCO world heritage sites Khorsabad, Nimrud, and Hatra. Scarlet Ware was first documented in the Diyala River basin in Iraq.

His "palace without rival" was aptly named as it was the grandest structure standing in Mesopotamia at the time.

The Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I reclaimed it in 1365BC while overthrowing the Mitanni Empire and creating the Middle Assyrian Empire (13651050 BC).[17]. Excavations in 1990 revealed a monumental entryway consisting of a number of large inscribed orthostats and "bull-man" sculptures, some apparently unfinished. About 12km in length, the wall system consisted of an ashlar stone retaining wall about 6 metres (20ft) high surmounted by a mudbrick wall about 10 metres (33ft) high and 15 metres (49ft) thick. It is bordered by deserts to the south and mountains to the north. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Mark, Joshua J.. The English placename Nineveh comes from Latin Nnev and Septuagint Greek Nineu () under influence of the Biblical Hebrew Nnweh (),[3] from the Akkadian Ninua (var. After the Second World War, several excavations were carried out by Iraqi archaeologists.

[57] In the Kuyunjiq mound, Layard rediscovered in 1849 the lost palace of Sennacherib with its 71 rooms and colossal bas-reliefs. The copper came from the mines at Ergani. The Assyrian city of Nineveh became one of Mitanni's vassals for half a century until the early 14th century BC. 3000 - 323 BC edition, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. [25] There are no later cuneiform tablets in Akkadian from Nineveh. Some modern English translations interpret "Ashur" in the Hebrew of this verse as the country "Assyria" rather than a person, thus making Nimrod, rather than Ashur, the founder of Nineveh. Under Ashurbanipal's reign (668-627 BCE) a new palace was constructed and he began the process of collecting and cataloging all of the written works in Mesopotamia. They probably date from the time of the revival of Elam in the century following the collapse of Assyria. The context of Nineveh was as one of many centers within the regional development of Upper Mesopotamia. After a long struggle the town is conquered by Median and Babylonian troops led by prince Arbaces and priest Belesis. The English Romantic poet Edwin Atherstone wrote an epic The Fall of Nineveh. It is not clear whether Nineveh came under the rule of the Medes or the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 612. During the Late Chalcolithic period Nineveh was part one of the few Ubaid villages in Upper Mesopotamia which became a proto-city Ugarit, Brak, Hamoukar, Arbela, Alep, and regionally at Susa, Eridu, Nippur.

(1995). Tell Nebi Yunus is located about 1 kilometre (0.6mi) south of Kuyunjiq and is the secondary ruin mound at Nineveh. [15] Iraqi Scarlet Ware culture also belongs to this period; this colourful painted pottery is somewhat similar to Jemdet Nasr ware. Although devastated in 612, the city was not completely abandoned. The Parthians also established a municipal mint at Nineveh coining in bronze. [79], In an October 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund named Nineveh one of 12 sites most "on the verge" of irreparable destruction and loss, citing insufficient management, development pressures and looting as primary causes.[80]. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. In 2010, Global Heritage Fund listed the ruins among its Top Twelve endangered sites for these reasons among others.

King Shalmaneser I (r. 1274-1245 BCE, builder of the city of Kalhu) built a palace and temple at Nineveh, refurbished the city, and is thought to be responsible also for the first walls surrounding the settlement. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. At this time, the main temple of Nineveh becomes known as Ishtar temple, re-dedicated to the Semite goddess Ishtar, in the form of Ishtar of Nineveh. Ashurbanipal's love of learning, and interest in written works, drew scholars and scribes to the city in great numbers and the stability of his reign allowed for the development of the arts, sciences, and architectural innovations. The solid foundation was made out of limestone blocks and mud bricks; it was 22 metres (72ft) tall. Learn how and when to remove this template message, set shows the campaign leading up to the siege of Lachish, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, The Bronze Head of the Akkadian Period from Nineveh, Kuyunjiq / Tell Nebi Yunis (ancient: Nineveh), Thorkild Jacobsen and Seton Lloyd, Sennacherib's Aqueduct at Jerwan, Oriental Institute Publication 24, "Jonah 4 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre", "Shelby White Leon Levy Program for Archaeological Publications Nineveh Publication Grant", "Officials: ISIS blows up Jonah's tomb in Iraq", "Exclusive Photos Show Destruction of Nineveh Gates by ISIS", "ISIS 'bulldozed' ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud, Iraq says", "Iraqi Digital Investigation Team Confirms ISIS Destruction of Gate in Nineveh", "Cultural Assessment of Iraq: The State of Sites and Museums in Northern Iraq Nineveh", "Mosul dam engineers warn it could fail at any time, killing 1m people", "Iraq: Isis militants pledge to destroy remaining archaeological", "ISIL video shows destruction of 7th century artifacts", Christians of Iraq: Ba-oota d' Ninevayee or the Fast of the Ninevites, John Malcolm Russell, "Stolen stones: the modern sack of Nineveh", University of California Digital Nineveh Archives, Layard's Nineveh and its Remains- full text, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nineveh&oldid=1096561821, Populated places established in the 6th millennium BC, Populated places disestablished in the 13th century, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2021, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Akkadian-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Mashki Gate ( ): Translated "Gate of the Water Carriers" (, Adad Gate: Adad Gate was named for the god, Hali Gate: Near the south end of the eastern city wall. Web. A number of cuneiform Elamite tablets have been found at Nineveh.

The Neo-Assyrian levels of Kuyunjiq have been extensively explored. The area was sparsely populated thereafter and, slowly, the ancient ruins became buried in earth. The site is greatly endangered with dumping of debris, illegal settlements and quarrying as the main threats. This early city (and subsequent buildings) were constructed on a fault line and, consequently, suffered damage from a number of earthquakes. Its gardens, too, were exceptional. In 1990, the only Assyrian remains visible were those of the entry court and the first few chambers of the Palace of Sennacherib. This growing settlement was not called Mosul until after the Arab conquests. [53][54][55][56] Layard did not use modern archaeological methods; his stated goal was "to obtain the largest possible number of well preserved objects of art at the least possible outlay of time and money". The result of his efforts was Ashurbanipal's famous library which held over 30,000 inscribed clay tablets, the books of that time. It comprised at least 80 rooms, many of which were lined with sculpture. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River and was the capital and largest city of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, as well as the largest city in the world for several decades. Today, it is a common name for the half of Mosul that lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and the country's Nineveh Governorate takes its name from it. License. [according to whom?] The meaning of the name is disputed but most likely relates to the prefix Nin or Nina which often appears in the names of deities (Ninhursag, Ninurta, among many others) and could have meant "House of the Goddess" or, specifically, "House of Ishtar" as the city was associated with that goddess from an early date. The Ghassulians who migrated to Canaan circa 4800 BC came from the Zagros mountains to the immediate northeast of Nineveh, according to genetic studies. [26], The earliest piece of written evidence for the persistence of Nineveh as a settlement is possibly the Cyrus Cylinder of 539/538 BC, but the reading of this is disputed. Pottery jar, Tepeyatagi, Khudat district, Kura-Araxtes culture. Our publication has been reviewed for educational use by Common Sense Education, Internet Scout, Merlot II, OER Commons and School Library Journal. Nab Ynus is the Arabic for "Prophet Jonah". The copyright holder has published this content under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins overlaid by c. one third by the Nebi Yunus suburbs of the city of eastern Mosul.[9]. The site is known today by the two mounds which cover it: the Kuyunjik and the Nebi Yunus. Although the writers of the biblical narratives may have thought poorly of the city, it was among the greatest intellectual and cultural centers of its time and there were no doubt many who mourned the city's destruction. Please support World History Encyclopedia Foundation. Books Benjamin of Tudela visited it in 1170; Petachiah of Regensburg soon after. [3] The original meaning of the name is unclear but may have referred to a patron goddess. [27], In 627, the city was the site of the Battle of Nineveh between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sasanians. Hormuzd Rassam and Robert William Rogers. Ten years later another rabbi, Petachia of Ratisbon [i.e. In 612 BCE the city of Nineveh was sacked and burned by the allied forces of the Persians, Medes, Babylonians, and others who then divided the region between them. South of the Khosr, the urbanized area is called Nebi Yunus (also Ghazliya, Jezayr, Jammasa), including Tell Nebi Yunus where the mosque of the Prophet Jonah and a palace of Esarhaddon/Ashurbanipal below it are located. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Since that time, the palace chambers have received significant damage by looters. It was regarded highly by ancient writers other than those who created the biblical narratives which cast it in a negative light. Archaeological excavations have uncovered a number of cities which rose and fell on the site. This period is defined primarily by the characteristic pottery that is found widely throughout Upper Mesopotamia. It was the largest city in the world for approximately fifty years[2] until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked by a coalition of its former subject peoples including the Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Scythians and Cimmerians. Copts and Ethiopian Orthodox also maintain this fast.[83]. Ninevite 5 was preceded by the Late Uruk period. [84] The work tells of an uprising against its king Sardanapalus of all the nations that were dominated by the Assyrian Empire.

The site of ancient Nineveh is bisected by the Khosr river. Tariq Madhloom, "Excavations at Nineveh: The 196869 Campaign", Diana Pickworth, Excavations at Nineveh: The Halzi Gate, Iraq, vol. Cite This Work In the 1973 film The Exorcist Father Lankester Merrin was on an archeological dig near Nineveh prior to returning to the United States and leading the exorcism of Reagan MacNiel. https://www.worldhistory.org/nineveh/. This is in no small part due to years of disrepair (in 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers cited it as the most dangerous dam in the world), the cancellation of a second dam project in the 1980s to act as flood relief in case of failure, and occupation by ISIL in 2014 resulting in fleeing workers and stolen equipment. World History Publishing is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Five of the gateways have been explored to some extent by archaeologists: By 2003, the site of Nineveh was exposed to decay of its reliefs by a lack of proper protective roofing, vandalism and looting holes dug into chamber floors. He is a great criminal. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and University of Missouri. The inscriptions boasted of his conquests: he wrote of Babylon: "Its inhabitants, young and old, I did not spare, and with their corpses I filled the streets of the city." Nineveh was caught up in the power struggle between the Assyrians and the Hittites, Mitanni, and Hatti until the Bronze Age Collapse of c. 1200 BCE during which the entire region suffered in one form or another. It featured a portico consisting of solid bronze columns resting on the backs of solid bronze lions and bulls, each of which weighed 43 tons. Sargon II and his son had never gotten along and so, when Sargon II died in 705 BCE, his successor wished to distance himself as much as possible from his father. J. E. Reade (1998), "Greco-Parthian Nineveh". "Nineveh." Today, Nineveh's location is marked by two large mounds, Tell Kuyunjiq and Tell Nab Ynus "Prophet Jonah", and the remains of the city walls (about 12 kilometres (7mi) in circumference).

VanderKam, "Jubilees, Book of", in L. H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam (eds. Myths apart, the localization of Ninevah remained a matter of common knowledge and beyond argument; various western travelers (such as Jean Baptiste Tavernier in 1644, and then Bourguignon d'Anville in 1779) confirmed it, and some soundings followed. The World History Encyclopedia logo is a registered trademark.

Here, near the northwestern corner of the walls, beyond the pavement of a later building, the archaeologists found almost 300 fragments of prisms recording the royal annals of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal, beside a prism of Esarhaddon which was almost perfect. King Khosrow II (591628) built a fortress on the west bank, and two Christian monasteries were constructed around 570 and 595. After the fall of Ur in 2000 BC Nineveh was absorbed into the rising power of Assyria. Nineveh is also mentioned in Rudyard Kipling's 1897 poem Recessional and in Arthur O'Shaughnessy's 1873 poem Ode. At this time the Hatti regained their autonomy in the region briefly until they were overrun by the Assyrians and Amorites. Tariq Madhloom, "Excavations at Nineveh: A preliminary report". A statue of Hermes has been found and a Greek inscription attached to a shrine of the Sebitti. In 1842, the French Consul General at Mosul, Paul-mile Botta, began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river. By the 13th century, Nineveh was mostly ruins.

Thank you! Nineveh. Assyrians of the Ancient Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of the East and Saint Thomas Christians of the Syro-Malabar Church observe a fast called Ba'uta d-Ninwe ( ) which means Nineveh's Prayer. The Neo-Assyrian Empire, the last phase of Assyrian rule in the region, is the most famous of Assyrian kingdoms and Nineveh reached its height under the reign of its kings. The cultural practices, technology, and economy in this region were shared and they followed a similar trajectory out of the neolithic.

of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology) (CC BY-NC-SA), The Neo-Assyrian Empire (c. 921 - 627 BCE).

The historian Gwendolyn Leick notes, "Nineveh, with its heterogeneous population of people from throughout the Assyrian Empire, was one of the most beautiful cities in the Near East, with its gardens, temples, and splendid palaces" (132) and further cites Nineveh as having a carefully planned and executed series of canals and aquaducts to ensure a steady supply of water not only for human consumption but also to keep the public parks and gardens irrigated; an aspect of urban life not every city attended to with as much care and planning. The Amorites occupied Nineveh and added to the temple, leaving behind inscriptions recording other construction projects which were later demolished. [65][66] The work was continued from 1967 through 1971 by Tariq Madhloom. In 627 CE the area was the site of the Battle of Nineveh, the decisive Byzantine victory in the Byzantine-Sassanid War (602-628 CE). If the dam fails, the entire site could be under as much as 45 feet (14m) of water. The city grew dramatically in size, grandeur and fame under the reign of King Sennacherib who made Nineveh his capital. Sign up for our free weekly email newsletter! Most recently, an IraqiItalian Archaeological Expedition by the Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna and the Iraqi SBAH, led by Nicol Marchetti, began (with three campaigns having taken place thus far in the fall between 2019 and 2021) a long-term project aiming at the excavation, conservation and public presentation of Eastern Nineveh (NINEV_E project). Stephanie Dalley (1993), "Nineveh after 612 BC". Caves in the Zagros Mountains adjacent to the north side of the Nineveh Plains were used as PPNA settlements, most famously Shanidar Cave. The king sets his own palace on fire and dies inside together with all his concubines. The Assyrian Empire was so large by this time that maintaining it was almost impossible. Many unburied skeletons were found by the archaeologists at the site. Ashurbanipal died in 627 BCE and his sons fought for control of the throne. If correctly read as Nineveh, it indicates that Cyrus the Great restored the temple of Ishtar at Nineveh and probably encouraged resettlement. He also unearthed the palace and famous library of Ashurbanipal with 22,000 cuneiform clay tablets. Most of the people in the city who could not escape to the last Assyrian strongholds in the north and west were either massacred or deported out of the city and into the countryside where they founded new settlements. Anything which could be moved from Dur-Sharrukin was relocated to Nineveh. Tariq Madhloom, "Excavations at Nineveh: The 196768 Campaign". Tell Arpachiyah has the oldest copper smelting remains, and Tepe Gawa has the oldest metal work. The biblical Book of Tobit takes place in Nineveh and the Gospels of Matthew (12:41) and Luke (11:32) both make mention of the city. The Book of Jonah was written between 500-400 BCE depicting events from hundreds of years earlier in the reign of the Hebrew King Jeroboam II (786-746 BCE).

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