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1997;277(6):472-477. http://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/Coriolusmushroom.html. 17. They can be used as the carrier of minor components associated with fibre, absorbents of various flavour components, and fat replacers in ground beef and pork sausage products (Verma and Banerjee, 2010). (2007) developed a dry milling process for the fractionation of oat groats into bran- and endosperm-rich fractions. Major cereal grain fibers and psyllium in relation to cardiovascular health. Additionally, oat bran is used in a wide range of bread products (Przybyla et al 1990). fiber.
What your clients may not know is that not all dietary fibers are created equal, both in terms of chemical structure and potential health benefits. 5. 1160/2011 of the Commission, foodstuffs through which 3 g/day of oat beta-glucan are consumed (1 g of oat beta-glucan per portion) are allowed to display the following health claim: "Oat beta-glucan reduces the cholesterol level in the blood. Viscosity is critical to slowing stomach emptying and regulating the uptake of energy from a meal. It was assumed, based on studies with purified soluble fibers extending back to the early 1960s (Keys et al 1961), that the soluble fiber of oats, mainly -glucan, was the ingredient primarily responsible for lowering serum cholesterol (Chen et al 1981). Wu and Doehlert (2002) used an inexpensive method to obtain an enriched -glucan oat bran fraction based on defatting of oat bran, grounding, and separation in fine and coarse fractions. The health claims approved by the FDA and the European Food Safety Authority are based on research showing that consuming 3 g of beta-glucans per day, from either oats or barley, can lower blood cholesterol levels by 5% to 8%.3 Clients or patients with high cholesterol levels likely will see the greatest benefit.4 However, it isnt clear whether beta-glucans can lower triglyceride levels.  In Europe, several health claim requests were submitted to the EFSA NDA Panel (Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), related to the role of -glucans in maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations and maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight. In the stomach, -glucans swell and cause gastric distension which is associated with the signal pathway of satiation the feeling of fullness, leading to a decreased appetite. Oat beta glucan is composed of mixed-linkage polysaccharides. , Throughout digestion, -glucan alters the physical properties of digesta while chemicals in the digestive tract break down -glucan, changing its composition. Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in sources such as grains, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. These may stimulate insulin release from the pancreas and alter glycogen breakdown by the liver and therefore play a role in glucose metabolism and protect against insulin resistance.1 However, its unknown whether appetite suppression is the result of increased fullness or an effect of insulin regulation.15, Advice for Clients The distribution of lipid classes is similar in wheat, barley, and rye, which contain about 65%78% nonpolar lipid, 7%13% galactolipid, and 15%26% phospholipids. Traditional oat bran, which has one and a half to two times the soluble fiber of whole oats, has become a popular ingredient since the recognition of the cholesterol-lowering properties of oat -glucan. The target population is adults with normal or mildly elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. Finally, oat bran has been used in rye sourdough fermentation (Degutyte-Fomins et al 2002) and in substrates for probiotic bacteria (Jaskari et al 1998, Kontula et al 1998, Salovaara 2004). Oat beta glucans are large molecules. However, in 2008, in response to a petition filed by the Quaker Oats Company, the FDA exempted certain foods from the low fat requirement due to the fat content derived from whole-oat sources (FDA 2008b). Susan G. Komen website. To examine in more detail the effects of food processing and the food matrix, we also examined in a second study (study 2) whether the same source and amount of oat bran as in study 1 would lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations when given with a drink. This effect is important to controlling glycemic response and blunting the after-meal insulin surge, which is thought to have positive effects for healthy weight maintenance. The author has found seed types that meet these short-seeded specifications in segregating populationsCN 72574 (VAO-3), CN 72575 (VAO-22), CN 19200 (VAO-7), and CN 72576 (VAO-9) derived from hybrids between a bald-seeded Canadian parent and a Chinese hulless oat parent (CN 18945)and was also able to isolate long-groat (CN 72577) and short-groat (CN 72578) strains with shallow creases, which theoretically permit a greater extraction of bran when milled. , -glucan extraction from oat can be difficult due to tendency of depolymerization which often occurs in high pH. For the past eight years, health claims for beta-glucancontaining foods have been allowed in the United States, Canada, Sweden, Finland, and the United Kingdom. JAMA. Oat is a rich source of the water-soluble fiber (1,3/1,4) -glucan, and its effects on health have been extensively studied over the last 30 years. Often millers only process oat cultivars with at least 4% by weight -glucan. 3. Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. , Oat -glucans have a prebiotic effect where they selectively stimulate growth of specific strands of microbes in the colon, where the particular microbe stimulated depends on the degree of polymerization of the -glucan.  In one review, the net decrease in blood glucose absorption reduced postprandial blood insulin concentrations, improving insulin sensitivity. About one-third of oat lipids are polar (8%17% glycolipids and 10%20% phospholipid). " This marked the first time a public health agency claimed dietary intervention can actually help prevent disease. Oatrim shall have a beta-glucan soluble-fiber content up to 10% (dry-weight-basis) and not less than that of the starting material. The insoluble oat fibres act as ideal bulking agents with water hydration capacity from 4.1 to 12.7 (g/g dry substance) (Mlkki, 2001). Since then, oat consumption has continued to gain traction in disease prevention with noted effects on ischemic heart disease and stroke prevention, but also in other areas like BMI reduction, blood pressure lowering and highly corroborated evidence for reduced blood serum cholesterol. The lowering of the blood cholesterol level can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Webster, in Oats (Second Edition), 2011. One of the more clinical breakthroughs was the discovery of oat beta glucan cholesterol-lowering properties, especially for the metabolic syndrome. F.H. In the small intestine, -glucan may reduce starch digestibility and glucose uptake significant in the reduction of postprandial glucose levels. Oat bran contains the most abundant -glucan in grains, which is a soluble diet. In addition to providing a more concentrated form of -glucan, these products reportedly have fat replacement and shelf life enhancement properties (Chapter 15). J Am Coll Nutr. It is rich in dietary fibers, especially in soluble fibers, present in the inner periphery of the kernel.  The degree of cholesterol reduction depends upon the particular strain of -glucan in a range between a molecular weights of 26.8 and 3000 kD. For example, one study found that consuming a beverage containing 2.5 g of beta-glucans resulted in significantly greater ratings of satiety than a fiber-free beverage.1,12 Another study found that overweight men who consumed 7 g/day of beta-glucans for 12 weeks experienced a significant reduction in body mass, waist circumference, and visceral fat compared with those in the placebo group.1,13, Research has suggested that a minimum of 4 to 6 g of beta-glucans are needed for appetite suppression.1 However, another study found that consuming 9 g/day of beta-glucans for 24 weeks had no significant effect on body weight.14 A recent review concluded that beta-glucans significantly increased satiety and reduced appetite compared with a diet containing no beta-glucans, although it didnt always translate into decreased food intake in short-term studies.15, How Beta-Glucans Work Beta-glucans are present in various commonly eaten foods, and intake is believed to be safe for most people. In July 2009, the Scientific Committee issued the following statements:, In November 2011, the EU Commission published its decision in favour of oat beta-glucans with regard to Article 14 of the EC Regulation on the labelling of foodstuffs with nutrition and health claim statements permitting oat beta-glucan to be described as beneficial to health. Integration of -glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks. Bernstein AM, Titgemeier B, Kirkpatrick K, Golubic M, Roizen MF. These fibers ability to lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, as well as cholesterol, has been established in numerous studies, but long-term effects are less well known. According to USDA (2015), the composition of oat bran is presented in Table10.2. The bran fraction from industrial oat dry milling procedures contains between 6% and 9% -glucans and about 40%52% of starch (Wronkowska, 2016).  Usually -glucan is solubilized in the extraction process with residual starch, which is then removed by hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The majority of cereal -glucan bonds consist of 3 or 4 beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds (trimers and tetramers) interconnected by 1,3 linkages. Many plant-derived polysaccharides, such as beta-glucans, regulate the immune system as they pass through the intestinal tract.16 Some beta-glucans interact with immune cells and stimulate the immune system directly.17, Viscous fibers such as psyllium, beta-glucans, and pectin may form a gel in the small intestine, which acts to delay nutrient absorption, slowing the delivery of glucose into the bloodstream and reducing the need for insulin. Before this amendment, Quaker Oats flavored, reduced-sugar instant oatmeal was not eligible to use the health claim because it was not low in fat, whereas flavored, unmodified instant oatmeal was eligible.  Diabetic people who increased their daily consumption of beta-glucans by more than 3 grams per day for months also lost body weight.
 This fermentation impacts the expression of many genes within the large intestine, which further affects digestive function and cholesterol and glucose metabolism, as well as the immune system and other systemic functions. Lyly M, Ohls N, Lahteenmaki L, et al.
It is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. If an oat product does not qualify to make the health claim, it is necessary to petition the FDA with scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of the new oat product in lowering serum lipids. Soluble -glucan increases stool weight through the increase in microbial cells in the colon. References
The beta glucan content varies, from 3-5% depending on variety when it grows in the field. 2. ). The effects of oat bran, however, contrasted with those of the wheat bran in several respects. Oat bran is produced by removing the starchy content of the grain. 18. For the oat bran, the particle size had substantial effects on the optimum work input and water absorption of the doughs.
http://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/Coriolusmushroom.html. Ames NP, Rhymer CR. fiber. 2010;16:5153-5164. Maria R. Kosseva, in Food Industry Wastes (Second Edition), 2020. The removal of the sugar resulted in more whole oats and a higher fat content from oats per serving. Rebecca S. Mathews, in Oats (Second Edition), 2011. -Glucan soluble fiber is the eligible soluble fiber from eligible whole-oat sources, as listed in 21 CFR 101.81. produced by grinding clean oat groats or rolled oats and separating the resulting oat flour by suitable means into fractions, such that the oat bran fraction is not more than 50% of the original starting material and provides at least 5.5% (dry-weight-basis) beta-glucan soluble fiber and a total dietary fiber content of 16% (dry-weight-basis), and such that at least one-third of the total dietary fiber is soluble fiber. J Nutr. S.W. 2009;2:25. In order to ensure a consistent and practical definition of oat bran for use in commerce and descriptive dietary work, AACCI defined oat bran as: the food which is produced by grinding clean oat groats or rolled oats and separating the resulting oat flour by sieving, bolting, and/or other suitable means into fractions such that the oat bran fraction is not more than 50% of the original starting material and has a total -glucan content of at least 5.5% (dry-weight basis), and a total dietary fiber content of at least 16.0% (dry-weight basis), and such that at least one-third of the total dietary fiber is soluble fiber (Robert, 1995). 2013;68(1):78-82. Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce the risk of glucose intolerance by slowing glucose absorption after a meal, says Susan M. Tosh, PhD, a research scientist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, an organization that provides information, research, and technology programs and policies related to food and agriculture. Among natural grains, only oats and barley contain water-soluble dietary fiber. Shimizu C, Kihara M, Aoe S, et al. , Cereal -glucans - including -glucan from oat, barley and wheat - are linear polysaccharides joined by 1,3 and 1,4 carbon linkages. Among these sources, barley typically has the highest beta-glucan content and oats the second highest. The (13)-linkages break up the uniform structure of the beta-D-glucan molecule and make it soluble and flexible.
Oat bran is commonly derived from groats or flakes by grinding the groats into flour and separating the coarser particles of bran from the flour by sieving. These products have -glucan contents ranging from 14 to 22% (OatWell and Natureal) and can deliver the health benefits of oat products in a much more concentrated form. Oat bran is produced by removing the starchy content of the grain.  A public interest in oat -glucan arose after its cholesterol lowering effect was reported in 1984. Due to the difference in oat bran composition generated by the variety and the cultivation conditions, the composition of oat bran is often presented in the literature in a domain of values: 15%18% protein, 10%50% starch and sugars, 5%10% fat, 10%40% total dietary fibers, and 5%20% -glucan (Sontag-Strohm etal., 2008; Dhinda etal., 2012). A fraction with particle sizes greater than 90m containing 200g/kg -glucan and less than 100g/kg of starch was obtained and this can be used as a food ingredient or for further processing. Chan GC, Chan WK, Sze DM. The effect of oat beta-glucan on both serum cholesterol and blood glucose reduction is proven. According to Gregory J. Berry, MBBS (SYD), MRCPych, a Sydney, Australia-based medical research analyst, If a patient is going to proactively immunomodulate with these compounds, they should first consult with their physician.. Clin Canc Res. Swedish Oat Fiber, 6 BUA HAMN, Hallands ln, 432 65, Sverige. Oat is a rich source of the water-soluble fiber (1,3/1,4) -glucan, and its effects on health have been extensively studied over the last 30 years. One study followed more than 65,000 women for six years and found that dietary fiber, including beta-glucan intake, was inversely associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.5 Mushroom beta-glucans differ structurally and dont affect glucose absorption. However, a recent laboratory study suggested that beta-glucans from barley and mushrooms have the potential to decrease glycemic response between 20% and 25% and 17% and 25%, respectively.6, While some studies suggest that a boost in immunity markers occurs from consuming oat beta-glucans,7 most of the research on beta-glucans and immunity has been done on mushroom extracts, not oats or barley. The lower the trimer-tetramer ratio, the higher the -glucan viscosity in solution. Rolled oat/oat flakes is about 4% and also wholemeal oat flour. 8. Thus -glucan extraction is usually performed under a more neutral pH and generally at temperatures of 60-100 degrees Celsius. Medicinal mushrooms, especially Coriolus versicolor (known as yun zhi in China), commonly are used in traditional Oriental medicine and have been for centuries.8,9 In the 1980s, the Japanese government approved the use of protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK), a beta-glucan compound found in mushrooms, for treating several types of cancers and for widespread use in cancer immunotherapy.9 Rather than directly killing cancer cells, these mushroom beta-glucans are thought to stimulate immune responses that damage cancer cells.8 However, because PSK is bound to a protein, pure beta-glucans that have been separated and purified may act differently than beta-glucans from food.10, While animal studies suggest that beta-glucans may be helpful as an adjuvant therapy,9,11 theres no research that shows increasing intake of PSK or any other beta-glucans can help prevent cancer. The major fatty acids in cereal grain lipids are linoleic, oleic, and palmitic (Haard and Chism 1996). Immunostimulatory properties and antitumor activities of glucans (Review). One and a half cups of cooked oatmeal or three packets of instant oatmeal provide 3 g of beta-glucans; 1 cup of cooked pearl barley contains approximately 2.5 g of beta-glucans.
Oat -glucans are linear and linked at the 1,3 and 1,4 carbon sites. Rolled oat/oat flakes is about 4% and also wholemeal oat flour. 16. , "21 CFR Part 101 [Docket No. 12. In the last years, clinical studies have proved health benefits like avoiding heart diseases by maintaining/lowering cholesterol, decreased blood sugar response after eating and also improving the gut health. The poor correlation between the proving and baking results argues that the wheat bran had its major effects on the aerated structure during baking rather than earlier in the breadmaking process. Im not convinced that beta-glucans would change immune function., In other studies, researchers have examined the association between beta-glucans and weight. In oats, they are concentrated in the bran, more precisely in the aleurone and sub-aleurone layer (see picture above). We therefore decided to investigate in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects the effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins of a daily consumption of 5 g -glucan from oat bran that was incorporated into bread and cookies (study 1). While some studies have suggested that beta-glucans also may boost the immune system, increase satiety, help regulate blood glucose levels, and decrease the risk of developing some types of cancer, the research hasnt been consistent enough to determine specific daily requirements for optimal health. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. The reason it is insoluble is cellulose consists only of (14)-beta-D-linkages.
Orally administered particulate -glucan modulates tumor-capturing dendritic cells and improves antitumor T-cell responses in cancer. Oats and barley differ in the ratio of cellotriosyl to cellotetraosyl, and barley has more 1-4 linkages with a degree of polymerization higher than 4. The beta glucan content varies, from 3-5% depending on variety when it grows in the field. In contrast with the wheat bran, both the level and particle size of the oat bran affected expansion during proving, resulting in a strong correlation between proving expansion and baked loaf volume. 2010;9:1-60. Oats can be selectively bred based on favourable -glucan levels. Potential of the beta-glucans to enhance innate resistance to biological agents. It was concluded that 3 g of -glucan from oats should be consumed daily to achieve a clinically relevant decrease in serum total cholesterol concentrations.